The idea that a family member or trusted friend may be paid to take care of an aging parent or sibling is a welcome one. However, most family members do not understand the legal complexity involved in privately paying for care, says the recent article “Paying a family member for care” from The Times Herald. Payments made to a family caregiver or a private caregiver can lead to a world of trouble from Medicaid and the IRS.
This is why attorneys create caregiver agreements for clients. The concept is that the care and services provided by a relative or friend would otherwise be performed by an outside person at whatever the going rates are within the person’s community. The payment should be considered a fully compensated transfer for Medicaid eligibility purposes and should not result in any penalty being imposed if it is done correctly.
This is more likely to be avoided with a formal written caregiver agreement. In some states, like Pennsylvania, a caregiver agreement is required to be sure that the payments made to the caregiver are not deemed to be a gift under Medicare rules.
The caregiver agreement must outline the services that are being provided and the rate of pay, which can be in the form of weekly, monthly or a lump sum payment. This is where it gets sticky: that payment should not be higher than what an outside provider would be paid. An excessively high payment would trigger a red flag for Medicaid and could be viewed as a gift.
Medicaid has a five-year look back period, where the applicant’s finances are examined to see if there were efforts to minimize the person’s financial assets to qualify for Medicaid. If any transfers of property or assets are made that are higher than fair market value, it is possible that it will be viewed as creating a period of ineligibility. That is why it is so important to have a contract or written agreement in place, when a family member or other person is hired to provide those services and is paid privately.
There are also income tax consequences. The caregiver is considered a household employee by the IRS. They are not considered to be an independent contractor and should not be issued a 1099 to reflect their payment. If that is done, it could be considered to be tax evasion.
Speak with an estate planning attorney about crafting a caregiving agreement and how to handle the tax issue, when privately paying for care. They will help avoid putting Medicaid eligibility in jeopardy, as well as avoiding problems with the IRS.
Reference: The Times Herald (Aug. 13, 2020) “Paying a family member for care”