Does a Beneficiary have to Pay Taxes on 401(k)? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

There are many complicated rules for inheriting assets in the form of retirement plans, workplace plans and Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs), says a recent article titled “How Much 401(k) Inheritance Taxes Will Really Cost You” from The Madison Leader-Gazette. Any assets passed from one person to another in the form of a 401(k) are taxable. You’ll want to be prepared.

How are Inherited 401(k)s Taxed?

The inheritance rule for 401(k) tax usually follows the same path as the rules used when making contributions or withdrawals to tax deferred retirement plans. When a person dies, their 401(k) becomes part of their taxable estate.

This means that any taxes due on earnings not paid during the person’s lifetime need to be paid.

Traditional 401(k) plans are funded with pre-tax dollars. This is great for the saver, who gets to defer paying taxes while they are working. When they retire, withdrawals are taxed at their ordinary income tax rate, which is typically lower than when they are working.

There is an exception with Roth 401(k)s, where contributions are made with after-tax dollars and qualified withdrawals are tax free.

How the IRS taxes an inherited 401(k) depends on three factors:

  • The relationship between the account owner and the heir
  • The age of the heir
  • How old the account owner was at the time of death.

Who Pays Taxes on an inherited 401(k)?

The beneficiary who inherits the 40(k) is responsible for paying the tax. They are taxed at the heir’s ordinary income tax rate. This could push the heir into a higher tax bracket.

What Should I Do with an Inherited 401(k)?

If your spouse was the original owner, you may leave the money in the plan and take regular distributions, paying income tax on the withdrawals. You may also roll it over into your own 401(k) or to an IRA. This allows the money to continue to grow tax free, until withdrawals are taken.

Can I Avoid Taxes on an Inherited 401(k)?

The only way to avoid taxes on inherited 401(k) would be to disclaim the inheritance, at which point the 401(k) would be passed to the contingent beneficiary. If you don’t need the money, don’t want the tax headaches, or would rather see it go to another family member, this is an option. Most people pay the taxes.

Planning For Taxes When Creating an Estate Plan

Talk with one of our experienced estate planning attorneys about your taxable assets and how to manage the tax liabilities to your heirs. There are numerous tools to address these and related issues. Your heirs will be grateful for your foresight and care.

Reference: The Madison Leader Gazette (July 29, 2022) “How Much 401(k) Inheritance Taxes Will Really Cost You”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Does Potential IRS Change Have an Impact on Estate Plan? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The new federal regulation would require many people who inherit money through traditional IRAs, as well as 401(k)s, 403(b)s, and eligible 457(b)s to withdraw funds from the accounts every year over a 10-year period, according to The Wall Street Journal.

Money Talks News’ recent article entitled “How an IRS Change Could Hurt Your Heirs” says that the change would apply to most beneficiaries other than spouses and would apply to those who inherited money after 2019.

Children 21 and older, grandchildren and most others who get money from an affected account would need to follow the new regulations or rules.

The proposed change would require beneficiaries to take minimum taxable withdrawals every year for 10 years from their inheritance in situations where the original account owner died on or after April 1 of the year of his or her 72nd birthday.

These withdrawals, technically known as required minimum distributions (RMDs), must deplete the account within the 10-year period.

Heirs would pay a penalty of 50% on any RMD amounts they did not withdraw according to the schedule defined by the new IRS rules.

The proposed change has the potential to leave your heirs less wealthy. The reason is because the money you bequeath to heirs would have less time to grow in tax-advantaged accounts before they would be forced to withdraw it.

Over time, this can make a big difference in how much money they accumulate from the initial amount you leave them.

The proposed rules are designed to clarify changes resulting from the federal Secure Act of 2019.

If the IRS moves forward with the changes, the new rules will add to the growing number of reasons why it makes sense for some people to consider putting money into a Roth IRA instead of a traditional IRA.

With a Roth IRA, the account owner pays taxes upfront. As a result, heirs will not owe any taxes on the money they inherit. Therefore, the new rules would not apply to Roth IRAs.

Reference: Money Talks News (May 13, 2022) “How an IRS Change Could Hurt Your Heirs”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

How Do IRAs and 401(k)s Fit into Estate Planning? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

When investing for retirement, two common types of accounts are part of the planning: 401(k)s and IRAs. J.P. Morgan’s recent article entitled “What are IRAs and 401(k)s?” explains that a 401(k) is an employer-sponsored plan that lets you contribute some of your paycheck to save for retirement.

A potential benefit of a 401(k) is that your employer may match your contributions to your account up to a certain point. If this is available to you, then a good goal is to contribute at least enough to receive the maximum matching contribution your employer offers. An IRA is an account you usually open on your own. As far as these accounts are concerned, the key is knowing the various benefits and limitations of each type. Remember that you may be able to have more than one type of account.

IRAs and 401(k)s can come in two main types – traditional and Roth – with significant differences. However, both let you to delay paying taxes on any investment growth or income, while your money is in the account.

Your contributions to traditional or “pretax” 401(k)s are automatically excluded from your taxable income, while contributions to traditional IRAs may be tax-deductible. For an IRA, it means that you may be able to deduct your contributions from your income for tax purposes. This may decrease your taxes. Even if you are not eligible for a tax-deduction, you are still allowed to make a contribution to a traditional IRA, as long as you have earned income. When you withdraw money from traditional IRAs or 401(k)s, distributions are generally taxed as ordinary income.

With Roth IRAs and Roth 401(k)s, you contribute after-tax dollars, and the withdrawals you take are tax-free, provided that they are a return of contributions, or “qualified distributions” as defined by the IRS. For Roth IRAs, your income may limit the amount you can contribute, or whether you can contribute at all.

If a Roth 401(k) is offered by your employer, a big benefit is that your ability to contribute typically is not phased out when your income reaches a certain level. 401(k) plans have higher annual IRS contribution limits than traditional and Roth IRAs.

When investing for retirement, you may be able to use both a 401(k) and an IRA with both Roth and traditional account types. Note that there are some exceptions to the rule that withdrawals from IRAs and 401(k)s before age 59½ typically trigger an additional 10% early withdrawal tax.

Reference: J.P. Morgan (May 12, 2021) “What are IRAs and 401(k)s?”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Is the Best Way to Leave Money to Children? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Parents and grandparents want what is best for children and grandchildren. We love generously sharing with them during our lifetimes—family vacations, values and history. If we can, we also want to pass on a financial legacy with little or no complications, explains a recent article titled “4 Tax-Smart Ways to Share the Wealth with Kids” from Kiplinger.

There are many ways to transfer wealth from one person to another. However, there are only a handful of tools to effectively transfer financial gifts for future generations during our lifetimes. UTMA/UGMA accounts, 529 accounts, IRAs, and Irrevocable Gift Trusts are the most widely used.

Which option will be best for you and your family? It depends on how much control you want to have, the goal of your gift and its size.

UTMA/UGMA Accounts, the short version for Uniform Transfers to Minor or Uniform Gift to Minor accounts, allows gifts to be set aside for minors who would otherwise not be allowed to own significant property. These custodial accounts let you designate someone—it could be you—to manage gifted funds, until the child becomes of legal age, depending on where you live, 18 or 21.

It takes very little to set up the account. You can do it with your local bank branch. However, the funds are taxable to the child and if an investment triggers a “kiddie tax,” putting the child into a high tax bracket and in line with income tax brackets for non-grantor trusts, it could become expensive. Your estate planning attorney will help you determine if this makes sense.

What may concern you more: when the minor turns 18 or 21, they own the account and can do whatever they want with the funds.

529 College Savings Accounts are increasingly popular for passing on wealth to the next generation. The main goal of a 529 is for educational purposes. However, there are many qualified expenses that it may be used for. Any income from transfers into the account is free of federal income tax, as long as distributions are used for qualified expenses. Any gains may be nontaxable under local and state laws, depending on which account you open and where you live. Contributions to 529 accounts qualify for the annual gift tax exclusion but can also be used for other gift and estate tax planning methods, including letting you make front-loaded gifts for up to five years without tapping your lifetime estate tax exemption.

You may also change the beneficiary of the account at any time, so if one child does not use all their funds, they can be used by another child.

From the IRS’ perspective, a child’s IRA is the same as an adult IRA. The traditional IRA allows an immediate deduction for income taxes when contributions are made. Neither income nor principal are taxed until funds are withdrawn. By contrast, a Roth IRA has no up-front tax deduction. However, any earned income is tax free, as are withdrawals. There are other considerations and limits.  However, generally speaking the Roth IRA is the preferred approach for children and adults when the income earner expects to be in a higher tax bracket when they retire. It is safe to say that most younger children with earned income will earn more income in their adult years.

The most versatile way to make gifts to minors is through a trust. There is no one-size-fits-all trust, and tax rules can be complex. Therefore, trusts should only be created with the help of an experienced estate planning attorney. A trust is a private agreement naming a trustee who will manage the assets in the trust for a beneficiary. The terms can be whatever the grantor (the person creating the trust) wants. Trusts can be designed to be fully asset-protected for a beneficiary’s lifetime, as long as they align with state law. The trust should have a provision for what will occur if the beneficiary or the primary trustee dies before the end of the trust.

Reference: Kiplinger (May 15, 2022) “4 Tax-Smart Ways to Share the Wealth with Kids”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Should I Have a Roth IRA? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Roth IRAs are powerful retirement savings tools. Account owners are allowed to take tax-free distributions in retirement and can avoid paying taxes on investment growth. There is little downside to a Roth IRA, according to a recent article “10 Reasons to Save for Retirement in a Roth IRA” from U.S. News & World Report.

Taxes are paid in advance on a Roth IRA. Therefore, if you are in a low tax bracket now and may be in a higher bracket later, or if tax rates increase, you have already paid those taxes. Another plus: all your Roth IRA funds are available to you in retirement, unlike a traditional IRA when you have to pay income tax on every withdrawal.

Roth IRA distributions taken after age 59 ½ from accounts at least five years old are tax free. Every withdrawal taken from a traditional IRA is treated like income and, like income, is subject to taxes.

When comparing the two, compare your current tax rate to what you expect your tax rate to be once you have retired. You can also save in both types of accounts in the same year, if you are not sure about future tax rates.

Roth IRA accounts also let you keep investment gains, because you don’t pay income tax on investment gains or earned interest.

Roth IRAs have greater flexibility. Traditional IRA account owners are required to take Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) from an IRA every year after age 72. If you forget to take a distribution, there is a 50% tax penalty. You also have to pay taxes on the withdrawal. Roth IRAs have no withdrawal requirements during the lifetime of the original owner. Take what you need, when you need, if you need.

Roth IRAs are also more flexible before retirement. If you are under age 59 ½ and take an early withdrawal, it will cost you a 10% early withdrawal penalty plus income tax. Roth early withdrawals also trigger a 10% penalty and income tax, but only on the portion of the withdrawal from investment earnings.

If your goal is to leave IRA money for heirs, Roth IRAs also have advantages. A traditional IRA account requires beneficiaries to pay taxes on any money left to them in a traditional 401(k) or IRA. However, those who inherit a Roth IRA can take tax-free withdrawals. Heirs have to take withdrawals. However, the distributions are less likely to create expensive tax situations.

Retirement savers can contribute up to $6,000 in a Roth IRA in 2022. Age 50 and up? You can make an additional $1,000 catch up contribution for a total Roth IRA contribution of $7,000.

If this sounds attractive but you have been using a traditional IRA, a Roth conversion is your next step. However, you will have to pay the income taxes on the amount converted. Try to make the conversion in a year when you are in a lower tax bracket. You could also convert a small amount every year to maintain control over taxes.

Reference: U.S. News & World Report (April 11, 2022) “10 Reasons to Save for Retirement in a Roth IRA”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Should I Know about Charitable Gifts? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Sometimes as individuals and families increase in wealth, they want to give more to charities.

Some charitable donations may be tax deductible or be able to reduce tax liabilities. Let’s look at some suggestions if you decide you want to make charitable donations, according to WMUR’s recent article entitled “Money Matters: Considerations when making charitable gifts.”

First, it might be the time to establish a giving plan. The first step is to decide how much your family wants to give. When researching a charity, look at how the contributions will be used. Charity Navigator, a charity assessment organization, has a site to help you get started at charitynavigator.org. Each charity has a rating with additional information.

Besides annual giving, charitable giving can play a role in estate planning. Your estate planning documents can state these wishes, and sometimes, giving can reduce estate taxes. The federal government taxes wealth transfers during life and at death. Currently, these types of taxes are imposed on lifetime transfers exceeding $12.06 million per spouse at a top rate of 40%. States may also impose these types of taxes. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about it.

To give to charity, you could include a bequest in your will or trust. Another option is to name a charity as a beneficiary on life insurance policies. Retirement plans such as IRAs, 401(k)s, and 403(b)s may also have a charity listed as beneficiary. If these plans are tax-deferred, then an advantage to using them to make charitable gifts is that a charity can get money tax-free that would otherwise be taxed.

You might also ask an estate planning attorney about a charitable lead or a charitable remainder trust.

Another option for giving is to use donor-advised funds, which gives the donor the tax benefit for making the gift all in one year but the option to make the actual gift later on.

A donor-advised fund is particularly useful for taxpayers who itemize deductions. This is an agreement between the donor and a host organization, which then becomes the legal owner of the assets.

You can tell the fund how to invest the contribution and how the money is disbursed. The fund controls the assets but usually will honor the donor’s requests.

Finally, you could set up a private family foundation. These are more complex but give you and your family control over the investment and distribution of the money. They work best when a significant amount of money is involved.

Reference: WMUR (Dec. 30, 2021) “Money Matters: Considerations when making charitable gifts”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Is a Bypass Trust Necessary? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

A bypass trust removes a designated portion of an IRA or 401(k) proceeds from the surviving spouse’s taxable estate, while also achieving several tax benefits, according to a recent article titled “New Purposes for ‘Bypass’ Trusts in Estate Planning” from Financial Advisor.

Portability became law in 2013, when Congress permanently passed the portability election for assets passing outright to the surviving spouse when the first spouse dies. This allows the survivor to benefit from the unused federal estate tax exemption of the deceased spouse, thereby claiming two estate tax exemptions. Why would a couple need a bypass trust in their estate plan?

  • The portability election does not remove appreciation in the value of the ported assets from the surviving spouse’s taxable estate. A bypass trust removes all appreciation.
  • The portability election does not apply if the surviving spouse remarries, and the new spouse predeceases the surviving spouse. Remarriage does not impact a bypass trust.
  • The portability election does not apply to federal generation skipping transfer taxes. The amount could be subject to a federal transfer tax in the heir’s estates, including any appreciation in value.
  • If the decedent had debts or liability issues, ported assets do not have the protection against claims and lawsuits offered by a bypass trust.
  • The first spouse to die loses the ability to determine where the ported assets go after the death of the surviving spouse. This is particularly important when there are children from multiple marriages and parents want to ensure their children receive an inheritance.

This strategy should be reviewed in light of the SECURE Act 10-year maximum payout rule, since the outright payment of IRA and 401(k) plan proceeds to a surviving spouse is entitled to spousal rollover treatment and generally a greater income tax deferral.

Bypass trusts are also subject to the highest federal income tax rate at levels of gross income of as low as $13,550, and they do not qualify for income tax basis step-up at the death of the surviving spouse.

However, the use of IRC Section 678 in creating the bypass trust can eliminate the high trust income tax rates and the minimum exemption, also under Section 678, so the trust is not taxed the way a surviving spouse would be. There is also the potential to include a conditional general testamentary power of appointment in the trust, which can sometimes result in income tax basis step-up for all or a portion of the appreciated assets in the trust upon the death of the surviving spouse.

Every estate planning situation is unique, and these decisions should only be made after consideration of the size of the IRA or 401(k) plan, the tax situation of the surviving spouse and the tax situation of the heirs. An experienced estate planning attorney is needed to review each situation to determine whether or not a bypass trust is the best option for the couple and the family.

Reference: Financial Advisor (Feb. 1, 2022) “New Purposes for ‘Bypass’ Trusts in Estate Planning”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Assets Should Be Considered when Planning Estate? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The numbers of Americans who have a formal estate plan is still less than 50%. This number has not changed much over the decade. However, the assets owned have become a lot more complicated, according to a recent article from CNBC titled “What happens to your digital assets and cryptocurrency when you die? Even with a will, they may be overlooked.”

Airline miles and credit card points, social media accounts and cryptocurrencies are different types of assets to be passed on to heirs. For those who do have an estate plan, the focus is probably on traditional assets, like their home, 401(k)s, IRAs and bank accounts. However, we own so much more today.

Start with an inventory. For digital assets, include photos, videos, hardware, software, devices, and websites, to name a few. Make sure someone you trust has the unlock code for your phone, laptop and desktop. Use a secure password manager or a notebook, whatever you are more comfortable with, and share the information with a trusted person.

You will also need to include what you want to happen to the digital asset. Some platforms will let owners name a legacy contact to handle the account when they die and what the owner wants to happen to the data, photos, videos, etc. Some platforms have not yet addressed this issue at all.

If an online business generates income, what do you want to happen to the business? If you want the business to continue, who will own the business, who will run the business and receive the income? All of this has to be made clear and documented properly.

Failing to create a digital asset plan puts those assets at risk. For cryptocurrency and nonfungible tokens (NFTs), this has become a routine problem. Unlike traditional financial accounts, there are no paper statements, and your executor cannot simply contact the institution with a death certificate and a Power of Attorney and move funds.

Another often overlooked part of an estate are pets. Assets cannot be left directly to pets. However, most states allow pet trusts, where owners can fund a trust and designate a trustee and a caretaker. Make sure to fund the account once it has been created, so your beloved companion will be cared for as you want. An informal agreement is not enforceable, and your pet may end up in a shelter or abandoned.

Sentimental possessions also need to be planned for. Your great-grandmother’s soup tureen may be available for $20 on eBay, but it is not the same as the one she actually used and taught her daughter and her granddaughter how to use. The same goes for more valuable items, like jewelry or artwork. Identifying who gets what while you are living, can help prevent family quarrels when you are gone. In some families, there will be quarrels unless the items are in the will. Another option: distribute these items while you are living.

If you can, it is also a good idea and a gift to your loved ones to write down what you want in the way of a funeral or memorial service. Do they want to be buried, or cremated? Do they want a religious service in a house of worship, or a simple graveside service?

If you are among those who have a will, you probably need it to be reviewed. If you do not have a will or a comprehensive estate plan, you should meet with an experienced estate planning attorney to address distribution of assets, planning for incapacity and preparing for the often overlooked aspects of your life. You will have the comfort of expressing your wishes and your loved ones will be grateful.

Reference: CNBC (Jan. 18, 2022) “What happens to your digital assets and cryptocurrency when you die? Even with a will, they may be overlooked”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What’s the Best Way to Mess Up Estate Plan? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Forbes’ recent article entitled “5 Ways People Mess Up Their Estate Plan” describes the most common mistakes people make that wreak havoc with their estate plans.

Giving money to an individual during life, but not changing their will. Cash gifts in a will are common. However, the will often is not changed. When the will gets probated, the individual named still gets the gift (or an additional gift). No one—including the probate court knows the gift was satisfied during life. As a result, a person may get double.

Not enough assets to fund their trust. If you created a trust years ago, and your overall assets have decreased in value, you should be certain there are sufficient assets going into your trust to pay all the gifts. Some people create elaborate estate plans to give cash gifts to friends and family and create trusts for others. However, if you do not have enough money in your trust to pay for all of these gifts, some people will get short changed, or get nothing at all.

Assuming all assets pass under the will. Some people think they have enough money to satisfy all the gifts in their will because they total up all their assets and arrive at a large enough amount. However, not all the assets will come into the will. Probate assets pass from the deceased person’s name to their estate and get distributed according to the will. However, non-probate assets pass outside the will to someone else, often by beneficiary designation or joint ownership. Understand the difference so you know how much money will actually be in the estate to be distributed in accordance with the will.  Do not forget to deduct debts, expenses and taxes.

Adding a joint owner. If you want someone to have an asset when you die, like real estate, you can add them as a joint owner. However, if your will is dependent on that asset coming into your estate to pay other people (or to pay debts, expenses or taxes), there could be an issue after you die. Adding joint owners often leads to will contests and prolonged court battles. Talk to an experienced estate planning attorney.

Changing beneficiary designations. Changing your beneficiary on a life insurance policy could present another issue. The policy may have been payable to your trust to pay bequests, shelter monies from estate taxes, or pay estate taxes. If it is paid to someone else, your planning could be down the drain. Likewise, if you have a retirement account that was supposed to be payable to an individual and you change the beneficiary to your trust, there could be adverse income tax consequences.

Talk to your estate planning attorney and review your estate plan, your assets and your beneficiary designations. Do not make these common mistakes!

Reference: Forbes (Oct. 26, 2021) “5 Ways People Mess Up Their Estate Plan”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Happens If I Take a Bigger RMD? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Once you celebrate your 72nd birthday, the IRS requires you to take a minimum amount from IRAs or other tax-deferred retirement accounts. Most people take the minimum, says a recent article from Kiplinger titled “Should You Take an Extra Big RMD This Year?” However, taking the minimum is not always the right strategy.

Looking at the broader picture might lead you to go bigger with your RMDs. For example, Bill and Betty are ages 75 and 71. Bill has an IRA worth $850,000. Their retirement income consists of a pension totaling $34,000, dividends of $8,000 and combined Social Security benefits of $77,000. Bob’s 2021 IRA RMD is $37,118. Using the standard deduction of $28,100 (for a married couple where both are over age 65 plus a $300 charitable contribution deduction), their taxable income is $116,468. Federal taxes are $16,560.

Bill and Betty could recognize another $65,000 of ordinary income from his IRA before they land in the 24% tax bracket. In 2022, Betty will have to start taking RMDs on her IRA—did we mention that her IRA is worth $1.5 million?—which will bump them into the 24% tax bracket. Bill should take another $64,000 from his IRA, filing up the 22% ordinary income bracket and reducing his RMD for 2022.

Another example: Alan Smithers is 81 and remarried ten years after his first wife passed. His IRA is worth $1.3 million, and his daughter is the beneficiary. His IRA RMD is $66,000 and he intends to be generous with charity this year, using about $30,000 for a Qualified Charitable Distribution (QCS). Based on a projection of his 2021 tax return, Alan could take another $22,000 from his IRA, taxable at 12%. His daughter Daphne is 51, has a high income and significant assets. He should consider filling up his own 12% marginal ordinary income bracket, because when Daphne starts taking her own beneficiary distributions, she will be facing high taxes.

Here is what you need to consider when making RMD decisions:

Your tax bracket. How much more income can you realize while staying within your current tax bracket? Taxpayers in the 10-12% brackets should be extra careful of maxing out on ordinary income.

Your income. What does 2022 look like for your income? Will there be other sources of income, such as an inherited IRA, spouse’s IRA RMD, or annuity income to be considered?

Beneficiaries. How does your own tax rate compare with the tax rates of your beneficiaries? If you have a large IRA and your children have high incomes, could an inheritance push them into a higher tax bracket?

Medicare Premiums. Increases in income can lead to higher Medicare Part B and D premiums in coming years, so also keep that in mind.

It is best to take the broader view when planning for RMDs and taxes. A short-sighted approach could end up being more costly for you and your heirs.

Reference: Kiplinger (Nov. 23, 2021) “Should You Take an Extra Big RMD This Year?”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys