Will We Have to Pay Gift Taxes if We Give a Rental Property to Our Son? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Older couples frequently invest in real estate. Many manage rental properties as an income stream.

Let’s say that a couple jointly bought a rental property worth $120,000 this year with their adult son. The son started his own limited liability company (LLC) and is a single owner. The parents plan to transfer the property to him, so he can use the rental income from the business for college expenses.

A common question is whether there will be any tax implication for the parents, if they move the property to their son’s LLC. The Washington Post’s recent article, “How to avoid gift taxes when shifting ownership of rental property to offspring,” answers that question by first assuming that the parents and the son purchased the rental property together in their own names. The son recently set up the LLC to use as the holding company for this rental property and other real estate properties he may own.

As far as gift tax implications, the couple have the ability to give their son $30,000 this year without having to file any federal gift tax forms or having any effect on their federal income taxes. Each person has the ability to gift another individual up to $15,000 a year without any IRS issues or the filing of forms. If each parent gave their son $30,000 this year and $30,000 next year, then that would effectively transfer their share of the property to him.

We’ll also assume that when they purchased the property, the parents paid closing costs and may have had other expenses while they’ve owned the property. Those expenses would play a part when calculating the tax basis of the property.

Assuming that the parents and their son each paid $60,000 for the property, when the son transfers the property from all the owners’ names into the LLC, the parents may have a taxable event for IRS purposes. That’s because the parents are effectively giving away ownership of their share of the property to their son. He’ll now own the property on his own. If the son signs a promissory note to the parents for $60,000 at the time of the transfer to the LLC, he’ll have an obligation to repay them the money for their share over the next six months. They could forgive $30,000 of the debt immediately and then they could forgive the other $30,000 in the new year. Their son would probably owe a little interest, but he could probably pay that from the income he receives from the rent.

This is just one solution to the transfer. There are many others, and some are much more complicated. Speak with an experienced estate planning attorney to review these issues and explore some other ideas that could work to everyone’s benefit.

Reference: The Washington Post (November 11, 2019) “How to avoid gift taxes when shifting ownership of rental property to offspring”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Should I Do If I Strike it Rich? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

There’s nothing quite like getting an unexpected sum of money. That happiness can be magnified when the amounts are six, seven, eight digits or more.

However, the greater the amount you receive, the greater your stress.

Investopedia’s recent article, “Tips For Handling Sudden Wealth” reports that there’s even a stress-related disorder called “Sudden Wealth Syndrome.”

This stress results in the recipients doing things that will threaten their good fortune and may leave them worse off than before they got the money.

Let’s look at few ideas to help you hang onto that new wealth:

  1. Tally your money. Take the time to carefully review all the documentation associated with the windfall. Note the areas you don’t understand and talk with your attorney.
  2. Create a comprehensive financial and life plan. Don’t settle for a cookie-cutter solution. Look for customization that takes into account your circumstances, your goals and your desired legacy.
  3. Be wary of friends and family. A downside of sudden new wealth is that new friends and estranged family members may come out of the woodwork. One idea is to pay yourself a salary, which can put some distance between you and these people.
  4. Don’t buy big ticket items, until you’re comfortable with the advice and understand your new financial position. You should address your taxes on the gain, pay down debts or take a small vacation. However, don’t make too many changes all at once. Talk to your advisors.

More money can mean more problems. Use these tips and consult with your attorney, when deciding what to do with your newfound riches.

Reference: Investopedia (June 25, 2019) “Tips For Handling Sudden Wealth”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Death Is Very Taxing — What you Need to Know – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

When a person dies, their assets are gathered, their debts are paid, business affairs are settled and assets are distributed, as directed by their will. If there is no will, the intestate laws of their state will be used to determine how to distribute their assets. A big part of the process of settling an estate is dealing with taxes. A recent article from Wicked Local Westwood, titled “Five things to know about taxes after death,” explains the key things an executor or personal representative needs to know.

The Deceased Final Income Tax Returns. Yes, the dead pay taxes. The personal representative is responsible for filing the deceased final income tax return for both the year of death and prior year, if those returns have not been filed. The final income tax return includes any income earned or received by the decedent from January 1 of the year of death through the date of death. It’s common for a deceased person who is ill during the last months or year of their life to fail to file tax returns, so the executor needs to find out about the decedent’s tax status. Failure to do so, could lead to the representative being personally liable for paying those taxes.

Filing a Federal Estate Tax Return. The personal representative must file a federal estate tax return, if the value of the estate assets exceeds the federal estate tax exemption, which is $11.4 million in 2019. Even if the value of the estate does not exceed the federal estate tax exemption amount, a federal estate tax return should be filed if the decedent is survived by a spouse. This way, the deceased’s unused exemption can be used by the spouse at their death. Note that the filing deadline for the federal estate tax return is nine months after the date of death. An estate planning attorney can help with this.

Fiduciary income tax returns. A personal representative and trustee may have to file fiduciary income tax returns for an estate or a trust. The estate is a taxpayer and the representative must get a tax identification number and file a fiduciary income tax return for the estate, if income is earned on estate assets or received during the administration of the estate. A revocable trust becomes irrevocable after the death of the trust creator. A tax identification number must be obtained, and a fiduciary income tax return must be filed for any income earned by trust assets.

Estate taxes and trust taxes can become complex and confusing for people who don’t do this on a regular basis. An estate planning attorney can be a valuable resource, so that taxes are properly paid and to make the most of any tax planning opportunities for estates, trusts and their beneficiaries.

Reference: Wicked Local Westwood (Nov. 5, 2019) “Five things to know about taxes after death”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Will My Heirs Need to Be Ready to Pay Estate Taxes? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Estate taxes all depend on how on much a person is planning to give to heirs.

Motley Fool’s recent article asks “If I Leave My Retirement Savings to My Heirs, Will They Pay Estate Tax?” The article tells us that retirement accounts like 401(k)s, 403(b)s, traditional and Roth IRAs and others are a part of your taxable estate.

However, unless the total assets of your estate plus any taxable gifts you’ve already given are more than the lifetime exclusion amount, your estate won’t owe estate taxes.

For 2019, this is $11,400,000, and in 2020, the exclusion will be raised to $11,580,000. If you total all of your assets’ value, only the amount in excess of the exclusion will be taxable. Therefore, if you have a $12,000,000 estate and die in 2020, only $420,000 of your assets would be subject to estate taxes.

Let’s look at another example: if your assets, including your retirement savings, total up to $5 million, your heirs won’t be required to pay any estate tax whatsoever.

However, while they may not have to pay estate taxes, remember that withdrawals from most retirement accounts (except Roth IRA accounts) will be deemed to be taxable income. Thus, estate tax or no estate tax, if your heirs are in a pretty high tax bracket, inheriting your retirement savings may increase their tax liability.

Don’t neglect to check with an estate planning attorney about your state’s estate and inheritance taxes. There are a handful of states that have their own estate taxes, and their thresholds may be lower than the IRS’s.

There are now six states with an inheritance tax: Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Nebraska, New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

Each state sets its own inheritance tax exemption, and inheritance tax rates. However, these rates are subject to change at any time with changes to the laws in those states.

Reference: Motley Fool (November 8, 2019) “If I Leave My Retirement Savings to My Heirs, Will They Pay Estate Tax?”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

New IRS Regulations Won’t Claw Back Estate Tax Benefits – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The IRS published regulations on Friday that there will not be a claw back in the event exemptions are reduced in 2026, when the current tax levels expire. We recommend clients consider making lifetime gifts to use some of the federal estate tax exemptions before the exemption is reduced.

Please feel free to give us a call if you would like to discuss this further.

IRS Says Millionaires Can Keep Estate Tax Benefits After 2025

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

The Downside of an Inheritance – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

As many as 1.7 million American households inherit assets every year. However, almost seventy-five percent of those heirs lose their inheritance within a few years. More than a third see no change or even a decline in their economic standing, says Canyon News in the article “Three Setbacks Associated With Receiving An Inheritance.”

Receiving an inheritance should be a positive event, but that’s often not the case. What goes wrong?

Family battles. A survey of lawyers, trust officers, and accountants conducted by TD Wealth found that at 44 percent, family conflicts are the biggest cause for inheritance setbacks. Conflicts often arise when individuals die without a properly executed estate plan. Without a will, asset distributions are left to the law of the state and the probate court.

However, there are also times when even the best of plans are created and problems occur. This can happen when there are issues with trustees. Trusts are commonly used estate planning tools, a legal device that includes directions on how and when assets are to be distributed to beneficiaries. Many people use them to shield assets from estate taxes, which is all well and good. However, if a trustee is named who is adverse to the interests of the family members, or not capable of properly managing the trust, lengthy and expensive estate battles can occur. Filing a claim against an adversarial trustee can lead to divisions among beneficiaries and take a bite out of the inheritance.

Poor tax planning. Depending upon the inheritance and the beneficiaries, there could be tax consequences including:

  • Estate Taxes. This is the tax applied to the value of a decedent’s assets, properties and financial accounts. The federal estate tax exemption as of this writing is very high—$11.4 million per individual—but there are also state estate taxes. Although the executor of the estate and not the beneficiary is typically responsible for the estate taxes, it may also impact the beneficiaries.
  • Inheritance Taxes. Some states have inheritance taxes, which are based upon the kinship between the decedent and the heir, their state of residence and the value of the inheritance. These are paid by the beneficiary and not the estate. Six states collect inheritance taxes: Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Nebraska, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Spouses do not pay inheritance taxes when their spouse’s die. Beneficiaries who are not related to decedents will usually pay higher inheritance taxes.
  • Capital Gains Tax. In certain circumstances, heirs pay capital gains taxes. Recipients may be subject to capital gains taxes, if they make a profit selling the assets that they inherited. For instance, if someone inherits $300,000 in stocks and the beneficiary sells them a few years later for $500,000, the beneficiary may have to pay capital gains taxes on the $200,000 profit.

Impacts on Government Benefits. If an heir is receiving government benefits like Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), Supplemental Social Security (SSS) or Medicaid, receiving an inheritance could make them ineligible for the government benefit. These programs are generally needs-based and recipients are bound to strict income and asset levels. An estate planning attorney will usually plan for this with the use of a Special Needs Trust, where the trust inherits the assets, which can then be used by the heir without losing their eligibility. A trustee is in charge of the assets and their distributions.

An estate planning attorney can work with the entire family by planning for the transfer of wealth and helping educate the family so that the efforts of a lifetime of work are not lost in a few years’ time.

Reference: Canyon News (October 15, 2019) “Three Setbacks Associated With Receiving An Inheritance”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Do My Heirs Need to Pay an Inheritance Tax? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

U.S. News & World Report explains in its article, “What Is Inheritance Tax?” that estate taxes and inheritance taxes are often mentioned as if they’re the same thing. However, they’re really very different in concept and practice.

Remember that not every estate is required to pay estate taxes, and not every heir will pay inheritance tax. Let’s discuss how to determine whether these taxes impact you.

Inheritance can be taxable to heirs. However, this is based upon the state in which the deceased lived and the heirs’ relationship to the benefactor.

Inheritance tax is a state tax on a portion of the value of a deceased person’s estate that’s paid by the inheritor of the estate. There’s no federal inheritance tax. Currently, there are only six states that impose an inheritance tax, according to the American College of Trust and Estate Counsel. The states that have an inheritance tax are Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Nebraska, New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

Inheritance tax laws and exemption amounts are different in each of these six states. In Pennsylvania, there’s no inheritance tax charged to a surviving spouse, a son or daughter age 21 or younger and certain charitable and exempt organizations. Otherwise, the Keystone State’s inheritance tax is charged on a tiered system. Direct descendants and lineal heirs pay 4.5%, siblings pay 12% and other heirs pay a cool 15%.

Inheritance tax is determined by the state in which the deceased lived. Estate taxes are deducted from the deceased’s estate after death and aren’t the responsibility of the heirs. Some states also charge their own estate taxes on assets more than a certain value. The states that charge their own estate tax are Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington and Washington, D.C.

Decreasing estate taxes are the responsibility of the deceased prior to his or her death. They should work with an estate planning attorney to map out strategies that can lessen or eliminate estate taxes for certain assets.

Remember that inheritance taxes are state taxes. They are imposed by only six states and are the responsibility of the heirs of the estate, even if they live in another state. In contrast, estate taxes are federal and state taxes. The federal estate tax is a 40% tax on assets more than $11.4 million for 2019 ($22.8 million for married couples). This is charged, regardless of where you live. Some states have additional estate taxes with their own thresholds.

Inheritance taxes are paid by the heirs and estate taxes are paid by the estate. An estate planning attorney can help to find ways to reduce taxes and transfer money efficiently.

Reference: U.S. News & World Report (October 8, 2019) “What Is Inheritance Tax?”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Why Should I Pair my Business Succession and Estate Planning? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

A successful business exit plan can accomplish three important objectives for a business owner: (i) financial security because the business sale or transfer provides income that the owner and owner’s family will need after the owner’s exit; (ii) the right person where the business owner names his or her successor; and (iii) income-tax minimization.

Likewise, a successful estate plan achieves three important personal goals: (i) financial security for the decedent’s heirs; (ii) the decedent (not the state) chooses who receives his or her estate assets; and (iii) estate-tax minimization.

Business owners will realize that the two processes have the same goals. Therefore, they can leverage their time and money and develop their exit plans into the design of their estate plans. The Phoenix Business Journal’s recent article “Which comes first for Arizona business owners: estate planning or exit planning?” explains that considering exit and estate planning together, lets a business owner ask questions to bring their entire picture into focus. Here are some questions to consider:

  1. If a business owner doesn’t leave her business on the planned business exit date, how will she provide her family with the same income stream they would’ve enjoyed if she had?
  2. How can a business owner be certain that her business retains its previously determined value?
  3. Regardless of whether an owner’s exit plan involves transferring part of the business to her children, does her estate plan reflect and implement her wishes, if she doesn’t survive?
  4. If an owner dies before leaving the business, can she be certain that her family will still get the full value of the business?

Another goal of the exit planning process is to protect assets from creditors during an owner’s lifetime and to minimize tax consequences upon a transfer of ownership.

Because planning exits from both business and life are based on the same premises, it can be relatively easy to develop a consistent outcome. There isn’t only one correct answer to the “estate or exit planning” question. A business owner must act on both fronts since a failure to act in either case creates ongoing issues for owners and for their businesses and families.

Reference: Phoenix Business Journal (October 8, 2019) “Which comes first for Arizona business owners: estate planning or exit planning?”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Should We Include Our Children in Our Charitable Giving Plans? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Transferring wealth to the next generation is a major part of estate planning, but few people discuss their philanthropic goals with their heirs.

CNBC’s recent article, “Don’t expect Mom and Dad to clue you in on your inheritance,” says that 8 out of 10 financial advisors said that “some” or “hardly any” of their clients involve the next generation in family philanthropy, according to a recent survey from Key Private Bank.

It would great for the older generation to get their children involved in the process because they frequently don’t see eye to eye on philanthropic causes. As a result, it’s rare for a person to get their children and grandchildren involved in philanthropy. That’s one of the biggest mistakes parents make when they think of wealth transfer planning and preparing their children to be responsible heirs.

The IRS will allow you to transfer up to $11.4 million ($22.8 million if you’re married) to your heirs, either in gifts during your lifetime or in bequests at death, without the 40% estate and gift tax. Remember that charitable bequests are deductible, lower your gross estate and reduce the estate tax bill.

Donor Advised Funds are tax-advantaged accounts that people can open at a brokerage firm and fund with cash, securities and other assets. It’s important to establish the charitable vehicle, like a donor advised fund, during your lifetime.

It’s best to be open about your own values and the causes you want to support.

Children would like to participate in their inheritance beyond the financial assets. They also should understand what values were important for Mom and Dad.

Listen to your children and grandchildren because younger generations bring a different view to the charitable giving conversation. Getting them involved early will also prepare them to be good stewards.

One more thing: try not to rule from the throne. As your heirs get older and devote themselves to different causes, try to step back. Let them drive the charitable effort. Give them guidance and support.

Reference: CNBC (September 18, 2019) “Don’t expect Mom and Dad to clue you in on your inheritance”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Will the IRS Say It’s a Gift, If I Sell My House to my Son at a Great Price? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

If a parent sells his home to his adult child at half the appraised price, this would be considered a gift, says nj.com in the article “I’m selling my home to my son at a discount. Is it considered a gift?”

The amount of the gift would be the excess of the value subtracted from the amount paid. In this example, if the bank-appraised value of the property is $700,000, and the parent is selling it for $340,000, the $360,000 will be treated as the amount of the gift.

The gift must be reported to the IRS on IRS Form 709 by April of the following year. However, there’s probably no gift tax due.

The gift tax is a tax on the transfer of property by one person to another while receiving nothing, or less than full value, in return. The tax applies whether the donor intends the transfer to be a gift or not.

In this case, because the value is a gift under the available federal annual gift exclusion, when applied, that relieves the son of taxes on the gift. The federal basic exclusion amount will be applicable.

An individual can gift $15,000, adjusted for cost of living over time, to a person each year without reporting the gift. However, if the gift to a single person is more than $15,000, then the IRS Form 709 must be filed to report the gift.

When reporting the gift, the value of the gift is applied against the available federal basic exclusion amount of the donor (the person making the gift). Only if the gift value is more than the available federal basic exclusion amount is there a tax that’s due.

The current federal basic exclusion amount is $11.4 million per person.

Reference: nj.com (September 17, 2019) “I’m selling my home to my son at a discount. Is it considered a gift?”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

For Immediate Release

Contact: Jane Frankel Sims

410-828-7775

Contact: Frank Campbell

410-263-1667

Sims & Campbell Estates and Trusts

Frankel Sims Law and Holden & Campbell
Merge to Form Sims & Campbell

Firm will offer comprehensive Trusts & Estates services through offices in Towson and Annapolis

TOWSON, Md. (April 26,2019)  Frankel Sims Law and Holden & Campbell have jointly announced the merger of their firms to create a boutique Trusts & Estates law firm providing comprehensive services in the fields of Estate Planning, Estate Administration, Trust Administration and Charitable Giving. The combined firm will be named Sims & Campbell and have offices in Towson, Md. and Annapolis, Md.  Jane Frankel Sims and Frank Campbell will lead and hold equal ownership stakes in the firm.

Sims & Campbell will have 9 attorneys and 15 legal professionals that handle every facet of estate and wealth transfer planning, including wills, revocable living trusts, irrevocable trusts, estate and gift tax advice, and charitable giving strategies.  The firm will focus solely on Trusts & Estates but will serve a wide range of clients, from young families with modest resources to ultra-high net worth individuals.  This allows clients to remain with the firm as their level of wealth and the complexity of related estate and tax implications change over time. 

“By joining forces, we have expanded our footprint to conveniently serve clients in Maryland, D.C. and Virginia” said Jane Frankel Sims.  We are seeing some of the greatest wealth transfer in our country’s history, and we want to continue to be on the leading edge of helping our clients maintain and enhance their family’s wealth.  In addition, we aim to serve our clients for years to come, and the new firm structure will allow Sims & Campbell to thrive even after Frank and I have retired.”    

“Jane and I have always admired each other’s firms and recognized the need to provide even greater depth and breadth of focused expertise to help families amass and protect their wealth from generation to generation,” said Frank Campbell.  “Now we have even greater capabilities to make a real difference for our clients.” 

The Sims & Campbell Towson office is located at 500 York Road, on the corner of York Road and Pennsylvania Avenue in the heart of Towson.  The Annapolis office is currently located at 716 Melvin Avenue, and is moving to 181 Truman Parkway in August, 2019.  For more information, visit www.simscampbell.law.