Does Your State Have an Estate or Inheritance Tax? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Did you know that Hawaii and the State of Washington have the highest estate tax rates in the nation at 20%? There are 8 states and DC that are next with a top rate of 16%. Massachusetts and Oregon have the lowest exemption levels at $1 million, and Connecticut has the highest exemption level at $7.1 million.

The Tax Foundation’s recent article entitled “Does Your State Have an Estate or Inheritance Tax?” says that of the six states with inheritance taxes, Nebraska has the highest top rate at 18%, and Maryland has the lowest top rate at 10%. All six of these states exempt spouses, and some fully or partially exempt immediate relatives.

Estate taxes are paid by the decedent’s estate, prior to asset distribution to the heirs. The tax is imposed on the overall value of the estate. Inheritance taxes are due from the recipient of a bequest and are based on the amount distributed to each beneficiary.

Most states have been steering away from estate or inheritance taxes or have upped their exemption levels because estate taxes without the federal exemption hurt a state’s competitiveness. Delaware repealed its estate tax at the start of 2018, and New Jersey finished its phase out of its estate tax at the same time. The Garden State now only imposes an inheritance tax.

Connecticut still is phasing in an increase to its estate exemption. They plan to mirror the federal exemption by 2023. However, as the exemption increases, the minimum tax rate also increases. In 2020, rates started at 10%, while the lowest rate in 2021 is 10.8%. Connecticut’s estate tax will have a flat rate of 12% by 2023.

In Vermont, they’re still phasing in an estate exemption increase. They are upping the exemption to $5 million on January 1, compared to $4.5 million in 2020.

DC has gone in the opposite direction. The District has dropped its estate tax exemption from $5.8 million to $4 million in 2021, but at the same time decreased its bottom rate from 12% to 11.2%.

Remember that the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 raised the estate tax exclusion from $5.49 million to $11.2 million per person. This expires December 31, 2025, unless reduced sooner!

Talk to an experienced estate planning attorney about estate and inheritance taxes, and see if you need to know about either, in your state.

Reference: The Tax Foundation (Feb. 24, 2021) “Does Your State Have an Estate or Inheritance Tax?”

 

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Can a Charity Be a Beneficiary of an Estate? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The interest in charitable giving increased in 2020 for two reasons. One was a dramatic increase in need as a result of the COVID pandemic, reports The Tax Advisor’s article “Charitable income tax deductions for trusts and estates.” The other was more pragmatic from a tax planning perspective. The CARES Act increased the amounts of charitable contributions that may be deducted from taxes by individuals and corporations.

What if a person wishes to make a donation from the assets that are held in trust? Is that still an income tax deduction? It depends.

The rules for donations from trusts are substantially different than those for charitable contribution deductions for individuals and corporations. The IRS code allows an estate or nongrantor trust to make a deduction which, if pursuant to the terms of the governing instrument, is paid for a purpose specified in Section 170(c). For trusts created on or before October 9, 1969, the IRS code expands the scope of the deduction to allow for a deduction of the gross income set aside permanently for charitable purposes.

If the trust or estate allows for payments to be made for charity, then donations from a trust are allowed and may be tax deductions. Otherwise, they cannot be deducted.

If the trust or estate allows distributions for charity, the type of asset contributed and how it was acquired by the trust or estate determines whether a tax deduction for a charitable donation is permitted. Here are some basic rules, but every situation is different and requires the guidance of an experienced estate planning attorney.

Cash donations. A trust or estate making cash donations may deduct to the extent of the lesser of the taxable income for the year or the amount of the contribution.

Noncash assets purchased by the trust/estate: If the trust or estate purchased marketable securities with income, the cost basis of the asset is considered the amount contributed from gross income. The trust or estate cannot avoid recognizing capital gain on a noncash asset that is donated, while also deducting the full value of the asset contributed. The trust or estate’s deduction is limited to the asset’s cost basis.

Noncash assets contributed to the trust/estate: If the trust or estate acquired an asset it wants to donate to charity as part of the funding of the fiduciary arrangement, no charity deduction is permitted. The asset that is part of the trust or estate’s corpus, the principal of the estate, is not gross income.

The order of charitable deductions, compared to distribution deductions, can cause a great deal of complexity in tax planning and reporting. Required distributions to noncharitable beneficiaries must be accounted for first, and the charitable deduction is not taken into account in calculating distributable net income. The recipients of the distributions do not get the benefit of the deduction. The trust or the estate does.

Charitable distributions are considered next, which may offset any remaining taxable income. Last are discretionary distributions to noncharitable beneficiaries, so these beneficiaries may receive the largest benefit from any charitable deduction.

If the trust claims a charitable deduction, it must file form 1041A for the relevant tax year, unless it meets any of the exceptions noted in the instructions in the form.

These are complex estate and tax matters, requiring the guidance of an experienced estate planning attorney for optimal results.

Reference: The Tax Advisor (March 1, 2021) “Charitable income tax deductions for trusts and estates”

 

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What Is Family Business Succession Planning? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The importance of the family business in the U.S. cannot be overstated. Neither can the problems that occur as a direct result of a failure to plan for succession. Business succession planning is the development of a plan for determining when an owner will retire, what position in the company they will hold when they retire, who the eventual owners of the company will be and under what rules the new owners will operate, instructs a recent article, “Succession planning for family businesses” from The Times Reporter. An estate planning attorney plays a pivotal role in creating the plan, as the sale of the business will be a major factor in the family’s wealth and legacy.

  • Start by determining who will buy the business. Will it be a long-standing employee, partners, or family members?
  • Next, develop an advisory team of internal employees, your estate planning attorney, CPA, financial advisor and insurance agent.
  • Have a financial evaluation of the business prepared by a qualified and accredited valuation professional.
  • Consider taxes (income, estate and gift taxes) and income requirements to sustain the owner’s current lifestyle, if the business is being sold outright.
  • Review estate planning strategies to reduce income and estate tax liabilities.
  • Examine the financial impact of the sale on the family member, if a non-family member buys the business.
  • Develop the structure of the sale.
  • Create a timeline.
  • Get started on all of the legal and financial documents.
  • Meet with the family and/or the new owner on a regular basis to ensure a smooth transition.

Selling a business to the next generation or a new owner is an emotional decision, which is at the heart of most business owner’s utter failure to create a plan. The sale forces them to confront the end of their role in the business, which they likely consider their life’s work. It also requires making decisions that involve family members that may be painful to confront.

The alternative is far worse for all concerned. If there is no plan, chances are the business will not survive. Without leadership and a clear path to the future, the owner may witness the destruction of their life’s work and a squandered legacy.

Speak with your estate planning attorney and your accountant, who will have had experience helping business owners create and execute a succession plan. Talking about such a plan with family members can often create an emotional response. Working with professionals who benefit from a lack of emotional connection to the business will help the process be less about feelings and more about business.

Reference: The Times Reporter (March 7, 2021) “Succession planning for family businesses”

 

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Estate Planning Meets Tax Planning – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Not keeping a close eye on tax implications, often costs families tens of thousands of dollars or more, according to a recent article from Forbes, “Who Gets What—A Guide To Tax-Savvy Charitable Bequests.” The smartest solution for donations or inheritances is to consider your wishes, then use a laser-focus on the tax implications to each future recipient.

After the SECURE Act destroyed the stretch IRA strategy, heirs now have to pay income taxes on the IRA they receive within ten years of your passing. An inherited Roth IRA has an advantage in that it can continue to grow for ten more years after your death, and then be withdrawn tax free. After-tax dollars and life insurance proceeds are generally not subject to income taxes. However, all of these different inheritances will have tax consequences for your beneficiary.

What if your beneficiary is a tax-exempt charity?

Charities recognized by the IRS as being tax exempt do not care what form your donation takes. They do not have to pay taxes on any donations. Bequests of traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, after-tax dollars, or life insurance are all equally welcome.

However, your heirs will face different tax implications, depending upon the type of assets they receive.

Let’s say you want to leave $100,000 to charity after you and your spouse die. You both have traditional IRAs and some after-tax dollars. For this example, let’s say your child is in the 24% tax bracket. Most estate plans instruct charitable bequests be made from after-tax funds, which are usually in the will or given through a revocable trust. Remember, your will cannot control the disposition of the IRAs or retirement plans, unless it is the designated beneficiary.

By naming a charity as a beneficiary in a will or trust, the money will be after-tax. The charity gets $100,000.

If you leave $100,000 to the charity through a traditional IRA and/or your retirement plan beneficiary designation, the charity still gets $100,000.

If your heirs received that amount, they would have to pay taxes on it—in this example, $24,000. If they live in a state that taxes inherited IRAs or if they are in a higher tax bracket, their share of the $100,000 is even less. However, you have options.

Here is one way to accomplish this. Let’s say you leave $100,000 to charity through your IRA beneficiary designations and $100,000 to your heirs through a will or revocable trust. The charity receives $100,000 and pays no tax. Your heirs also receive $100,000 and pay no federal tax.

A simple switch of who gets what saves your heirs $24,000 in taxes. That is a welcome savings for your heirs, while the charity receives the same amount you wanted.

When considering who gets what in your estate plan, consider how the bequests are being given and what the tax implications will be. Talk with your estate planning attorney about structuring your estate plan with an eye to tax planning.

Reference: Forbes (Jan. 26, 2021) “Who Gets What—A Guide To Tax-Savvy Charitable Bequests”

 

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What Happens If Trust Not Funded – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Revocable trusts can be an effective way to avoid probate and provide for asset management, in case you become incapacitated. These revocable trusts — also known as “living” trusts — are very flexible and can achieve many other goals.

Point Verda Recorder’s recent article entitled “Don’t forget to fund your revocable trust” explains that you cannot take advantage of what the trust has to offer, if you do not place assets in it. Failing to fund the trust means that your assets may be required to go through a costly probate proceeding or be distributed to unintended recipients. This mistake can ruin your entire estate plan.

Transferring assets to the trust—which can be anything like real estate, bank accounts, or investment accounts—requires you to retitle the assets in the name of the trust.

If you place bank and investment accounts into your trust, you need to retitle them with words similar to the following: “[your name and co-trustee’s name] as Trustees of [trust name] Revocable Trust created by agreement dated [date].” An experienced estate planning attorney should be consulted.

Depending on the institution, you might be able to change the name on an existing account. If not, you will need to create a new account in the name of the trust, and then transfer the funds. The financial institution will probably require a copy of the trust, or at least of the first page and the signature page, as well as the signatures of all the trustees.

Provided you are serving as your own trustee or co-trustee, you can use your Social Security number for the trust. If you are not a trustee, the trust will have to obtain a separate tax identification number and file a separate 1041 tax return each year. You will still be taxed on all of the income, and the trust will pay no separate tax.

If you are placing real estate in a trust, ask an experienced estate planning attorney to make certain this is done correctly.

You should also consult with an attorney before placing life insurance or annuities into a revocable trust and talk with an experienced estate planning attorney, before naming the trust as the beneficiary of your IRAs or 401(k). This may impact your taxes.

Reference: Point Verda Recorder (Nov. 19, 2020) “Don’t forget to fund your revocable trust”

 

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Changes to Estate Tax Laws? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

This New York Times Article from January 2021 is a good summary of the potential changes to the estate tax laws under President Biden.  In addition to the possibility of a reduction in the federal estate tax exemption to $5 million or $3.5 million, the article also summarizes the possible increase in the estate tax rate from 40% to 55%, as well as significant changes to the capital gains tax rules.

Reference: NYTimes.com (Jan. 15, 2021) “The Estate Tax May Change Under Biden, Affecting Far More People”

 

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State Laws Have an Impact on Your Estate – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Nj.com’s recent article entitled “Will N.J. or Florida’s tax laws affect this inheritance?” notes that first, the fact that the individual from Florida is not legally married is important.

However, if she is a Florida resident, Florida rules will matter in this scenario about the vacation condo.

Florida does not have an inheritance tax, and it does not matter where the beneficiary lives. For example, the state of New Jersey will not tax a Florida inheritance.

Although New Jersey does have an inheritance tax, the state cannot tax inheritances for New Jersey residents, if the assets come from an out-of-state estate.

If she did live in New Jersey, there is no inheritance tax on “Class A” beneficiaries, which include spouses, children, grandchildren and stepchildren.

However, the issue in this case is the fact that her “daughter” is not legally her daughter. Her friend’s daughter would be treated by the tax rules as a friend.

You can call it what you want. However, legally, if she is not married to her friend, she does not have a legal relationship with her daughter.

As a result, the courts and taxing authorities will treat both persons as non-family.

The smart thing to do with this type of issue is to talk with an experienced estate planning attorney who is well-versed in both states’ laws to determine whether there are any protections available.

Reference: nj.com (July 23, 2020) “Will N.J. or Florida’s tax laws affect this inheritance?”

 

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Is there a Better Plan than a Reverse Mortgage? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

If you are 62 or older, one way to get a bit more cash, is to use the equity in your home in a reverse mortgage. It is a type of loan that allows you to borrow against the equity in your home and receive a set monthly payment or line of credit (or a combination of the two). The repayment is deferred until you move out, sell the home, become delinquent on property taxes or insurance, the home falls into disrepair, or you pass away. At that point, the house is sold and any excess funds after repayment belong to you or your heirs.

Investopedia’s recent article entitled “Alternatives to a Reverse Mortgage” explains that reverse mortgages can be troublesome, if you do not set it up right. They also require careful consideration for the rights of the surviving spouse, if you are married. Ultimately, with a reverse mortgage, you or your heirs give up your home, unless you are able to buy it back from the bank. There are some less than stellar reverse mortgage companies out there, so it can be risky.

There are a few other ways to generate cash for your living expenses in retirement.

Refinance Your Mortgage. You may be able to refinance your existing mortgage to lower your monthly payments and free up some cash. It is wise to lower the interest rate on your mortgage, which can save you money over the life of the loan, decrease the size of your monthly payments and help you build equity in your home more quickly. If you refinance rather than going with a reverse mortgage, your home remains as an asset for you and your heirs.

Get a Home-Equity Loan. This loan or second mortgage allows you to borrow money against the equity in your home. Note that the new Tax Cuts and Jobs Act restricted the eligibility for a home-equity loan interest deduction. For tax years 2018 through 2025, you will not be able to deduct home-equity loan interest, unless the loan is used specifically for qualified purposes. Like refinancing, your home remains an asset for you and your heirs. Remember that because your home is collateral, there is a risk of foreclosure, if you default on the loan.

Use a Home Equity Line of Credit. A home-equity line of credit (HELOC) lets you borrow up to your approved credit limit on an as-needed basis. Unlike a home-equity loan, where you pay interest on the entire loan amount whether you are using the money or not, with a HELOC you pay interest only on the amount of money you actually take out. These are adjustable loans, so your monthly payment will change with fluctuating interest rates.

Downsize. The options previously discussed let you keep your existing home. However, if you are willing and able to move, selling your home allows you to tap into your equity. Many people downsize, because they are in a home that is much larger than they need without children around. Your current home also may be too difficult or costly to maintain. When you sell, you can use the proceeds to purchase a smaller, more affordable home or you might just rent, and you will have extra money to save, invest or spend as you want.

Sell Your Home to Your Children. Another alternative to a reverse mortgage, is to sell your home to your children. You might think about a sale-leaseback. In this situation, you would sell the house, then rent it back using the cash from the sale. As landlords, your children get rental income and can take deductions for depreciation, real estate taxes and maintenance. You could also consider a private reverse mortgage. This works like a reverse mortgage, except the interest and fees stay in the family: your children make regular payments to you, and when it is time to sell the house, they recoup their contributions (and interest).

Reverse mortgages may be a decent option for people who are house rich and cash poor, with lots of home equity but not enough income for retirement. However, this article lays out some other options, that let you to tap into the equity you have built up in your home. Before making any decisions, do some research on your options, shop around for the best rates (where applicable) and speak with an experienced elder law attorney.

Reference: Investopedia (June 25, 2020) “Alternatives to a Reverse Mortgage”

 

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Should I Borrow from my 401(k) during the Pandemic? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The major advantage of saving in a 401(k), is that you can have tax-deferred growth on your investments. When you are saving money for the long term, you typically want to leave it alone. However, there are some situations, in which withdrawing money from your 401(k) is acceptable.

Investopedia’s recent article entitled “Hardship Withdrawal vs. 401(k) Loan: What’s the Difference?” says that prior to making a move, you need to understand the financial implications of using your retirement plan early. There are two basic ways to take money out before reaching retirement age.

One option is to take a hardship withdrawal. The IRS says that hardship withdrawals are okay, only when there is an immediate and great financial need. These withdrawals are usually limited to the amount required to satisfy that need. These withdrawals are subject to ordinary income tax and, if you are not yet 59½, there is a 10% early withdrawal penalty, except if you are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The CARES Act lets you make a penalty-free COVID-19 related withdrawal or take out a loan from your 401(k) in 2020, with special repayment provisions and tax treatment.

The IRS has a safe harbor exception that lets you automatically meet the heavy-need standard in certain situations, such as for those who must take a hardship withdrawal to pay for medical expenses for themselves, a spouse, or dependents. A hardship withdrawal could also be helpful, if you are in a long period of unemployment and do not have an emergency fund. The IRS waives the penalty if you are unemployed and need to buy health insurance, but you would still owe taxes on the withdrawal. Other situations that are covered by the safe harbor exception include:

  • Tuition, education fees, and room-and-board expenses for the next 12 months of post-secondary school for the employee or the employee’s spouse, children, dependents, or beneficiary.
  • Payments that are required to prevent the eviction of the employee from his or her principal residence or foreclosure on the mortgage on that residence.
  • Funeral expenses for the employee, the employee’s spouse, children, dependents, or beneficiary.
  • Certain expenses to repair damage to the employee’s principal residence.

If you qualify for a Coronavirus-Related Distribution (CRD) from your 401(k) plan during 2020, that distribution will be treated as a safe-harbor distribution that is not subject to a 10% early withdrawal penalty if you are under 59½ but subject to regular income taxes. Some other unique stipulations to this special distribution say that:

  • You can withdraw up to $100,000 or your account balance, whichever is less.
  • You can spread out any taxes over three years.
  • If you pay the funds back into your account within three years, it will be considered a rollover and not taxed.

The IRS has expanded the eligibility for a hardship withdrawal to include having a job start date delayed or a job offer rescinded because of COVID-19 and allow a spouse of an impacted person to make a hardship withdrawal—even if the spouse is still working.

If you are not in such a financial state but still want to take cash from your plan, a 401(k) loan is the other way to go. The IRS says that you can borrow 50% of your vested account balance or $50,000, whichever is less. However, a loan has both pros and cons. You are in effect paying back the money to yourself. That means you are returning it to your retirement account, and that is good. However, if you leave your job and do not repay the loan within a specified period (which was recently extended to the due date of your federal income tax return, instead of the previous 60-to-90 day window, under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act), it is treated as a regular distribution. Therefore, income tax and the early withdrawal penalty would apply.

However, there may be situations in which you might consider a loan. New rules also let you withdraw a loan of up to $100,000 or the amount in your employer-sponsored retirement plan (whichever is less) anytime until September 23, 2020, and delay payments on the loan for up to a year (but the interest will accrue.) If you already have an outstanding loan, the payments can also be deferred for a year.

Consolidating debt. You could use the loan to consolidate high-interest debt, if your credit doesn’t qualify you for a low rate on a personal loan or a debt consolidation loan.

Purchasing a home. It could help when you are planning to buy a home. You could use the money to cover closing costs or hold it in your down-payment savings account for a few months before buying. A 401(k) loan typically must be repaid within five years with at least quarterly payments, but the IRS allows provisions for plan administrators to extend the repayment period longer for those buying a home.

Making an Investment. You could make an investment, like a home as an investment property when you plan to renovate the home and flip it for a profit but need capital to make the purchase.

When You Have A Comfortable Retirement Cushion. If you have been saving regularly for many years with solid investments, you may be ahead of schedule when it comes to hitting your retirement goal. If so, and your job is stable, taking a loan from your 401(k) may not be too bad for your retirement.

There is also an option for 2020 only for taking a 401(k) loan. If you qualify for a CRD, the CARES Act lets you to take a loan of up to $100,000 or the amount in your employer-sponsored retirement plan (whichever is less) until September 23, 2020. You can postpone the payments for up to a year, but interest will accrue. If you already have an outstanding loan, those payments can also be deferred for a year.

If you decide to take a loan or a hardship withdrawal, be certain that you understand the potential tax consequences of doing so.

Reference: Investopedia (June 23, 2020) “Hardship Withdrawal vs. 401(k) Loan: What’s the Difference?”

 

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How Do I Protect an Inheritance from the Tax Man? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Inheritances are not income for federal tax purposes, whether you inherit cash, investments or property. However, any subsequent earnings on the inherited assets are taxable, unless it comes from a tax-free source. Therefore, you must include the interest income in your reported income.

The Street’s recent article entitled “4 Ways to Protect Your Inheritance from Taxes” explains that any gains when you sell inherited investments or property are usually taxable. However, you can also claim losses on these sales. State taxes on inheritances vary, so ask a qualified estate planning attorney about how it works in your state.

The basis of property in a decedent’s estate is usually the fair market value (FMV) of the property on the date of death. In some cases, however, the executor might choose the alternate valuation date, which is six months after the date of death—this is only available if it will decrease both the gross amount of the estate and the estate tax liability. It may mean a larger inheritance to the beneficiaries.

Any property disposed of or sold within that six-month period is valued on the date of the sale. If the estate is not subject to estate tax, the valuation date is the date of death.

If you are getting an inheritance, you might ask that they create a trust to deal with their assets. A trust lets them pass assets to beneficiaries after death without probate. With a revocable trust, the grantor can remove the assets from the trust, if necessary. However, in an irrevocable trust, the assets are commonly tied up until the grantor dies.

Let us look at some other ideas on the subject of inheritance:

You should also try to minimize retirement account distributions. Inherited retirement assets are not taxable, until they are distributed. Some rules may apply to when the distributions must occur, if the beneficiary is not the surviving spouse. Therefore, if one spouse dies, the surviving spouse usually can take over the IRA as their own. RMDs would start at age 72, just as they would for the surviving spouse’s own IRA. However, if you inherit a retirement account from a person other than your spouse, you can transfer the funds to an inherited IRA in your name. You then have to start taking RMDs the year of or the year after the inheritance, even if you’re not age 72.

You can also give away some of the money. Sometimes it is wise to give some of your inheritance to others. It can assist those in need, and you may offset the taxable gains on your inheritance with the tax deduction you get for donating to a charitable organization. You can also give annual gifts to your beneficiaries, while you are still living. The limit is $15,000 without being subject to gift taxes. This will provide an immediate benefit to your recipients and also reduce the size of your estate. Speak with an estate planning attorney to be sure that you are up to date with the frequent changes to estate tax laws.

Reference: The Street (May 11, 2020) “4 Ways to Protect Your Inheritance from Taxes”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys