Make the Most of a Roth IRA, Even If You’re Not Ultra-Wealthy – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

While it may seem like only the ultra-wealthy benefit from a Roth IRA, this retirement tool is an excellent tax shelter that anyone can use, reports CNBC.com in the recent article “The ultra-wealthy have made full use of Roth individual retirement accounts. Here’s how you can do the same.” One of PayPal’s founders, Peter Thiel, had $5 billion in a Roth IRA as of 2019, according to a ProPublica report. It said that he used a self-directed Roth account, which allows the owner to hold alternative assets, like shares in a private company or real estate that generally cannot be placed in a regular Roth.

Traditional 401(k) plans and IRAs offer a tax break, when contributions are made. Taxes are paid upon withdrawal, which is supposed to happen only after a certain age when you have retired. By contrast, the Roth versions of the 401(k) and IRA do not have the tax break up front—you have to pay taxes on the money or assets when making contributions—but there are no taxes paid upon withdrawal, and there are no required withdrawals, as there are with traditional IRAs and 401(k)s.

You pay income taxes on the money placed into the account, and then it grows tax free. You can take it out anytime, as long as the account has been owned for at least five years and you are age 59½ or older. Self-directed Roth IRAs permit tax-free growth and untaxed distributions plus investments can be made that are not available in regular Roth accounts.

Theil had private company shares in his self-directed Roth IRA, before PayPal was a publicly traded company. He benefited from both timing and savvy investment skills.

Self-directed IRAs are generally available only through specialized custodians. Brand-name financial companies do not offer them. The custodians that hold self-directed IRAs do not manage the account or police what investments are placed into the accounts, so you will need the advice of a tax-savvy estate planning attorney to be sure you are following the rules. Note that there can also be valuation issues. The value of alternative assets is not as clear as publicly traded securities. You will need to get the value right, so you do not break any tax laws. Once assets are in the account, you can sell them and use the proceeds to purchase other instruments in the account, all under the same tax-free Roth protection.

Even if you do not use a self-directed Roth IRA, the standard Roth IRA yields many benefits. We do not know what the future tax environment will be, but tax-free withdrawals in the future, combined with high-growth assets, make the Roth IRA a good choice for retirement nest eggs.

Reference: CNBC.com (June 24, 2021) “The ultra-wealthy have made full use of Roth individual retirement accounts. Here’s how you can do the same”

 

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Are Roth IRAs Smart for Estate Planning? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Think Advisor’s recent article entitled “Secure Act 2.0, Biden Tax Hike Plans Make Roth IRAs a Crucial Tool” says that Roth IRAs offer an great planning tool, and that the Secure Act 2.0 retirement bill (which is expected to pass) will create an even wider window for Roth IRA planning.

With President Biden’s proposed tax increases, it is wise to leverage Roth conversions and other strategies while tax rates are historically low—and the original Secure Act of 2019 made Roth IRAs particularly valuable for estate planning.

Roth Conversions and Low Tax Rates. Though tax rates for some individuals may increase under the Biden tax proposals, rates for 2021 are currently at historically low levels under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act passed at the end of 2017. This makes Roth IRA conversions attractive. You will pay less in taxes on the conversion of the same amount than you would have prior to the 2017 tax overhaul. It can be smart to make a conversion in an amount that will let you “fill up” your current federal tax bracket.

Reduce Future RMDs. The money in a Roth IRA is not subject to RMDs. Money contributed to a Roth IRA directly and money contributed to a Roth 401(k) and later rolled over to a Roth IRA can be allowed to grow beyond age 72 (when RMDs are currently required to start). For those who do not need the money and who prefer not to pay the taxes on RMDs, Roth IRAs have this flexibility. No RMD requirement also lets the Roth account to continue to grow tax-free, so this money can be passed on to a spouse or other beneficiaries at your death.

The Securing a Strong Retirement Act, known as the Secure Act 2.0, would gradually raise the age for RMDs to start to 75 by 2032. The first step would be effective January 1, 2022, moving the starting age to 73. If passed, this provision would provide extra time for Roth conversions and Roth contributions to help retirees permanently avoid RMDs.

Tax Diversification. Roth IRAs provide tax diversification. For those with a significant amount of their retirement assets in traditional IRA and 401(k) accounts, this can be an important planning tool as you approach retirement. The ability to withdraw funds on a tax-free basis from your Roth IRA can help provide tax planning options in the face of an uncertain future regarding tax rates.

Estate Planning and the Secure Act. Roth IRAs have long been a super estate planning vehicle because there is no RMD requirement. This lets the Roth assets continue to grow tax-free for the account holder’s beneficiaries. Moreover, this tax-free status has taken on another dimension with the inherited IRA rules under the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (Secure) Act. The legislation eliminates the stretch IRA for inherited IRAs for most non-spousal beneficiaries. As a result, these beneficiaries have to withdraw the entire amount in an inherited IRA within 10 years of inheriting the account. Inherited Roth IRAs are also subject to the 10-year rule, but the withdrawals can be made tax-free by account beneficiaries, if the original account owner met the 5-year rule prior to his or her death. This makes a Roth IRA an ideal estate planning tool in situations where your beneficiaries are non-spouses who do not qualify as eligible designated beneficiaries.

Reference: Think Advisor (May 11, 2021) “Secure Act 2.0, Biden Tax Hike Plans Make Roth IRAs a Crucial Tool”

 

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What are the Big Tax Penalties to Avoid in Retirement? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Building and living off a nest egg can be a challenge. However, you can make the situation worse, if you encounter some important laws for retirement accounts.

Money Talks News’ recent article entitled “3 Tax Penalties That Can Ding Your Retirement Accounts” says make one wrong step and the federal government may want some explanations. Here are the three penalties to avoid at all costs, when contributing to or withdrawing from your retirement accounts.

Excess IRA Contribution Penalty. If you put too much away in an individual retirement account (IRA), it can cost you. The IRS says you can (i) contribute an amount of money that exceeds the applicable annual contribution limit for your IRA; or (ii) improperly roll over money into an IRA.

If you get a little too anxious to build a nest egg and make one of these mistakes, the IRS says that “excess contributions are taxed at 6% per year as long as the excess amounts remain in the IRA. The tax cannot be more than 6% of the combined value of all your IRAs as of the end of the tax year.”

The IRS has a remedy to address your mistake before any penalties are imposed. You must withdraw the excess contributions — and any income earned on those contributions — by the due date of your federal income tax return for that year.

Early Withdrawal Penalty. If you take your money out too soon from a retirement account, you will suffer another potentially costly mistake. If you withdraw money from your IRA before the age of 59½, you may be subject to paying income taxes on the money—plus an additional 10% penalty, according to the IRS. The IRS explains there are several scenarios in which you are permitted to take early IRA withdrawals without penalties, such as if you lose a job, where you can use your IRA early to pay for health insurance. The same penalties apply to early withdrawals from retirement plans like 401(k)s, although again, there are exceptions to the rule that allow you to make early withdrawals without penalty. However, note that the exceptions which let you make early retirement plan withdrawals without penalty sometimes differ from the exceptions that allow you to make early IRA withdrawals without penalty. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES) Act of 2020 also created a one-time exception to the early-withdrawal penalty for both retirement plans and IRAs, due to the coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, coronavirus-related distributions of up to a total of $100,000 that were made in 2020 are exempt.

Missed RMD Penalty. Retirement plans are terrific because they generally let you defer paying taxes on your contributions and income gains for many years. However, at some point, the federal government will want its share of that cash. Taxpayers previously had to take required minimum distributions (RMDs) from most types of retirement accounts starting the year they turn 70½. However, the Secure Act of 2019 moved that age to 72. The consequences of failing to make RMDs still apply, and if you do not take your RMDs starting the year you turn 72, you face harsh penalties. The IRS says:

“If you do not take any distributions, or if the distributions are not large enough, you may have to pay a 50% excise tax on the amount not distributed as required.”

It is important to understand that the RMD rules do not apply to Roth IRAs. You can leave money in your Roth IRA indefinitely, but another provision of the Secure Act means your heirs must be careful if they inherit your Roth IRA.

Reference: Money Talks News (Feb. 18, 2021) “3 Tax Penalties That Can Ding Your Retirement Accounts”

 

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Estate Planning Meets Tax Planning – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Not keeping a close eye on tax implications, often costs families tens of thousands of dollars or more, according to a recent article from Forbes, “Who Gets What—A Guide To Tax-Savvy Charitable Bequests.” The smartest solution for donations or inheritances is to consider your wishes, then use a laser-focus on the tax implications to each future recipient.

After the SECURE Act destroyed the stretch IRA strategy, heirs now have to pay income taxes on the IRA they receive within ten years of your passing. An inherited Roth IRA has an advantage in that it can continue to grow for ten more years after your death, and then be withdrawn tax free. After-tax dollars and life insurance proceeds are generally not subject to income taxes. However, all of these different inheritances will have tax consequences for your beneficiary.

What if your beneficiary is a tax-exempt charity?

Charities recognized by the IRS as being tax exempt do not care what form your donation takes. They do not have to pay taxes on any donations. Bequests of traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, after-tax dollars, or life insurance are all equally welcome.

However, your heirs will face different tax implications, depending upon the type of assets they receive.

Let’s say you want to leave $100,000 to charity after you and your spouse die. You both have traditional IRAs and some after-tax dollars. For this example, let’s say your child is in the 24% tax bracket. Most estate plans instruct charitable bequests be made from after-tax funds, which are usually in the will or given through a revocable trust. Remember, your will cannot control the disposition of the IRAs or retirement plans, unless it is the designated beneficiary.

By naming a charity as a beneficiary in a will or trust, the money will be after-tax. The charity gets $100,000.

If you leave $100,000 to the charity through a traditional IRA and/or your retirement plan beneficiary designation, the charity still gets $100,000.

If your heirs received that amount, they would have to pay taxes on it—in this example, $24,000. If they live in a state that taxes inherited IRAs or if they are in a higher tax bracket, their share of the $100,000 is even less. However, you have options.

Here is one way to accomplish this. Let’s say you leave $100,000 to charity through your IRA beneficiary designations and $100,000 to your heirs through a will or revocable trust. The charity receives $100,000 and pays no tax. Your heirs also receive $100,000 and pay no federal tax.

A simple switch of who gets what saves your heirs $24,000 in taxes. That is a welcome savings for your heirs, while the charity receives the same amount you wanted.

When considering who gets what in your estate plan, consider how the bequests are being given and what the tax implications will be. Talk with your estate planning attorney about structuring your estate plan with an eye to tax planning.

Reference: Forbes (Jan. 26, 2021) “Who Gets What—A Guide To Tax-Savvy Charitable Bequests”

 

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How to Benefit from a Roth IRA and Social Security – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

When originally created, Social Security was designed to prevent the elderly and infirm from sinking into dire poverty. When most working Americans enjoyed a pension from their employer, Social Security was an additional source of income and made for a comfortable retirement. However, with an average monthly benefit just over $1,500 and few pensions, today’s Social Security is not enough money for most Americans to maintain a middle-class standard of living, says the article “3 Reasons a Roth IRA Is a Perfect Supplement to Social Security” from Tuscon.com. It is important to plan for additional income streams and one to consider is the Roth IRA.

Roth IRAs can be funded at any age. Many seniors today are continuing to work to generate income or to continue a fulfilling life. Their earnings can be put into a Roth IRA, regardless of age. If you are still working but do not need the paycheck, that is a perfect way to fund the Roth IRA.

Withdrawals from a Roth won’t trigger taxes on Social Security benefits. If your only income is Social Security, you probably will not have to worry about federal taxes. However, if you are working while you are collecting benefits, once your earnings reach a certain level, those benefits will be taxed.

To calculate taxes on Social Security benefits, you will need to determine your provisional income, which is the non-Social Security income plus half of your early benefit. If you earn between $25,000 and $44,000 as a single tax filer or between $32,000 and $44,000 as a married couple, you could be taxed as much as 50% of your Social Security benefits. If your single income goes past $34,000 and married income goes past $44,000, you could be taxed on up to 85% of your benefits.

If you put money into a Roth IRA, withdrawals do not count towards your provisional income. That could leave you with more money from Social Security.

A Roth IRA is flexible. The Roth IRA is the only tax-advantaged retirement savings plan that does not impose Required Minimum Distributions or RMDs. That is because you have already paid taxes when funds went into the account. However, the flexibility is worth it. You can leave the money in the account for as long as you want, so savings continue to grow tax-free. You can also leave money to your heirs.

While you do not have to put your savings into a Roth IRA, doing so throughout your career—or starting at any age—will give you benefits throughout retirement.

Reference: Tuscon.com (Oct. 5, 2020) “3 Reasons a Roth IRA Is a Perfect Supplement to Social Security”

 

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Social Security and Medicare and the Impact on Retiree Taxes – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

A 70% increase in Medicare premiums to $559 was a complete surprise to a woman who became a single taxpayer when her husband died. She felt like she was being punished for being a widow, she said in a recent article titled “Retirees, Beware These Tax Torpedoes” from Barron’s. With a 2018 modified adjusted gross income of $163,414, a combination of required minimum distributions, Social Security and her husband’s pensions, she went from being in the third-highest Medicare bracket into the second highest Medicare bracket. All it took was $414 dollars to exceed the $163,000 limit.

This is not the only tax trap awaiting unwary retirees. Lower- and middle-income taxpayers get hit by what is commonly referred to as “tax torpedoes,” as rising income during retirement triggers new taxes. That includes Social Security income, which is taxed after reaching a certain limit. The resulting marginal tax rate—as high as 40.8%—is made worse by a Medicare surtax of 0.9% on couples with taxable income exceeding $250,000. Capital gains taxes also increase, as income rises.

It may be too late to make changes for this tax-filing year, even with a three-month extension to July 15. However, there are a few steps that retirees can take to avoid or minimize these taxes for next year. The simplest one: delay spending from one year to the next and be extra careful about taking funds from after-tax accounts.

What hurts most is if you are on the borderline of a bracket. Just one wrong move, like selling a stock or taking a distribution, puts you into the next bracket. You need to plan carefully.

One thing that will not be a concern for 2020 taxes: required minimum distributions. While many retirees get pushed into tax traps because of taking large RMDs, the emergency legislation passed in response to the coronavirus crisis (the CARES Act) eliminated RMDs for this year.

However, the RMDs will be back in 2021, so now is a good time to start thinking about how to avoid any of the typical tax torpedoes. RMDs used to start at age 70½; the SECURE Act changed that to 72.

If you do not need the money from an RMD in 2021, one workaround is to take it as a qualified charitable distribution. That avoids triggering higher taxes or higher future Medicare premiums. The administrator of the tax-deferred account needs to be instructed to make a donation directly to a charity.

An even better strategy: take steps long before Medicare income limits or tax torpedoes hit. If you can, live on after-tax savings, Roth IRA accounts or inherited money. Spend that money first, before tapping into tax-deferred accounts. You can then take advantage of being in a lower tax bracket to convert money from tax-deferred money to convert to Roth IRAs.

Another story of a tax hit that was avoided: a man with an income of about $80,000 prepared to take $4,000 from a tax-deferred account for a vacation. The couple’s normal top tax bracket was 12%, but they hit the income limit on Social Security taxes. The $4,000 in additional income would have caused $3,400 in Social Security income to be taxed, making his marginal tax rate 22.2% instead of 12%. With the help of a good advisor, the couple instead took $3,000 from a Roth IRA and sold a stock position for $1,000, where there were practically no capital gains generated.

Incomes at all levels can be hit by these tax and Medicare torpedoes. A skilled advisor can help protect your retirement and Social Security funds.

Reference: Barron’s (July 6, 2020) “Retirees, Beware These Tax Torpedoes”

 

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Tapping an Inherited IRA? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Many people are looking at their inherited IRAs this year, when COVID-19 has decimated the economy. The rules about when and how you can tap the money you inherited changed with the passage of the SECURE Act at the end of December 2019. It then changed again with the passage of the CARES Act in late March in response to the financial impact of the pandemic.

Things are different now, reports the article “Read This Before You Touch Your Inherited IRA Funds” from the News & Record, but one thing is the same: you need to know the rules.

First, if the owner had the account for fewer than five years, you may need to pay taxes on traditional IRA distributions and on Roth IRA earnings. This year, the federal government has waived mandatory distributions (required minimum distributions, or RMDs) for 2020. You may take out money if you wish, but you can also leave it in the account for a year.

Surviving spouses who do not need the money may consider doing a spousal transfer, rolling the spouse’s IRA funds into their own. The RMD does not occur until age 72. This is only available for surviving spouses, and only if the spouse is the decedent’s sole beneficiary.

The federal government has also waived the 10% early withdrawal penalty for taxpayers who are under 59½. If you are over 59½, then you can access your funds.

The five-year method of taking IRA funds from an inherited IRA is available to beneficiaries, if the owner died in 2019 or earlier. You can take as much as you wish, but by December 31 of the fifth year following the owner’s death, the entire account must be depleted. The ten-year method is similar, but only applies if the IRA’s owner died in 2020 or later. By December 31 of the tenth year following the owner’s death, the entire IRA must be depleted.

Heirs can take the entire amount in a lump sum immediately, but that may move their income into a higher tax bracket and could increase tax liability dramatically.

A big change to inherited IRAs has to do with the “life expectancy” method, which is now only available to the surviving spouse, minor children, disabled or chronically ill people and anyone not more than ten years younger than the deceased. Minor children may use the life expectancy method until they turn 18, and then they have ten years to withdraw all remaining funds.

There is no right or wrong answer, when it comes to taking distributions from inherited IRAs. However, it is best to do so, only when you fully understand how taking the withdrawals will impact your taxes and your long-term financial picture. Speak with an estate planning attorney to learn how the inherited IRA fits in with your overall estate plan.

Reference: News & Record (May 25, 2020) “Read This Before You Touch Your Inherited IRA Funds”

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What Do I Need to Retire? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Research from the Employee Benefit Research Institute’s Retirement Confidence Survey shows a lack of preparation in retirement planning. According to the annual survey, 66% of those 55 years and older said they were confident they had sufficient savings to live comfortably throughout retirement. However, just 48% within the same age group have not figured out their retirement needs.

Kiplinger’s article entitled “Ready to Retire? Not Until You’ve Done These 3 Things” says knowing where you are now and knowing what you will need and want in retirement are important to protect your portfolio throughout your golden years. If you want to retire at 65, then age 55 is when you will want to start making some important decisions.

Let us look at three steps to take in your last decade of your working years to help create a safety net for a long retirement:

At 10 years or more before retirement, you should diversify your tax exposure. You may have a large portion of your portfolio in an employer sponsored 401(k) or in IRAs. These tax-deferred accounts give you plenty of benefits now, because you are not taxed on the contributions. At age 50 and older, you can make additional catch-up contributions that let you put away $26,000 in 2020 in your 401(k) each year. Because you are probably going to pay a lower tax rate in retirement when you begin taking taxable withdrawals, it gives you a nice tax advantage today.

In the years before your retirement, build assets in tax-free accounts for flexibility, so you can keep tax costs down in retirement. Assets in a Roth IRA or a Roth account within your 401(k) can give you a source of tax-free income in retirement. You paid taxes on the money you put into a Roth, so it grows tax-free and withdrawals after age 59½ are income tax free. If you are over 50, then you can add up to $7,000 into the account this year.

When you are five years from retirement, create a health care plan. A huge expense in retirement is health care. Plan for out-of-pocket health care costs as well as long-term care. Taking advantage of a health savings account, if you are in a high-deductible health insurance plan is a good way to save for the out-of-pocket health care expenses that will not be covered by Medicare or your private health insurance. You can fund an HSA up to $7,100 for families ($8,100 if you’re 55 or older). Contributions are made on a pre-tax basis, so your account grows tax free, and withdrawals are tax- and penalty-free, if used for qualified health care expenses. You should also look at long-term care insurance.

When you are just a year from retirement, start spending as if you are already retired. Be sure you can live comfortably, when spending at your retirement budget.

No one can see the future, but you may be able to limit the effects of shocks to your retirement savings.  Adding in these layers of protection at least 10 years prior to retirement, can help you secure your retirement goals.

Reference: Kiplinger (Jan. 24, 2020) “Ready to Retire? Not Until You’ve Done These 3 Things”

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What are the Taxes on My IRA Withdrawal? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Investopedia’s recent article entitled “How Much Are Taxes on an IRA Withdrawal?” explains that the withdrawal rules for other types of IRAs are similar to the traditional IRA, with some small unique differences. Other types of IRAs include the SEP IRA, Simple IRA and SARSEP IRA. However, each of these has different rules about who can open one.

Tax-Free Withdrawals Only with Roth IRAs. When you invest with a Roth IRA, you deposit the money post-tax. Therefore, when you withdraw the money in retirement, you pay no tax on the money you withdraw, or on any gains your investments earned. That is a big benefit. To do this, the money must have been deposited in the IRA and held for at least five years and you must be at least 59½ years old. If you need cash before that, you can withdraw your contributions with no tax penalty, provided you do not touch any of the investment gains. You should document any withdrawals before 59½ and tell the trustee to use only contributions, if you are withdrawing funds early. If you do not do this, you could be charged the same early withdrawal penalties charged for taking money out of a traditional IRA.

The Taxing of IRA Withdrawals. Money that is placed in a traditional IRA is treated differently from money in a Roth, because it is pretax income. Each dollar you deposit lessens your taxable income by that amount. When you withdraw the money, both the initial investment and the gains it earned are taxed at your income tax rate when withdrawn. However, if you withdraw money before you are 59½, you will be hit with a 10% penalty, in addition to regular income tax based on your tax bracket. If you accidentally withdraw investment earnings rather than only contributions from a Roth IRA before you are 59½, you can also incur a 10% penalty. You can, therefore, see how important it is to keep careful records.

Avoiding the Early Withdrawal Tax Penalty. There are a few hardship exceptions to the 10% penalty for withdrawing money from a traditional IRA or the investment-earnings portion of a Roth IRA before you reach age 59½.

Do not mix Roth IRA funds with the other types of IRAs. If you do, the Roth IRA funds will become taxable. Some states also levy early withdrawal penalties. Once you hit age 59½, you can withdraw money without a 10% penalty from any type of IRA. If it is a Roth IRA and you have had a Roth for five years or more, you will not owe any income tax. If it is not, you will have taxes due.

The funds put in a traditional IRA are treated differently from money in a Roth. If the money is deposited in a traditional IRA, SEP IRA, Simple IRA or SARSEP IRA, you will owe taxes at your current tax rate on the amount you withdraw. However, you will not owe any income tax, provided that you keep your money in a non-Roth IRA until you reach another key age milestone. Once you reach age 72 (with new SECURE Act), you will have to take a distribution from a traditional IRA. The IRS has specific rules about how much you must withdraw each year, which is called the required minimum distribution (RMD). If you do not withdraw your RMD, you could be hit with a 50% tax on the amount not distributed as required.

There are no RMD requirements for a Roth IRA, but if money is still there after your death, your beneficiaries may have to pay taxes. There are several different ways they can withdraw the funds, so they should get the advice of an attorney.

Reference:  Investopedia (Feb. 21, 2020) “How Much Are Taxes on an IRA Withdrawal?”

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Tax Planning in Your Retirement Planning – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Once you are retired, the only tax you will not have to pay will be—can you guess? Yes, payroll taxes. However, there are plenty of other taxes to be paid, advises Forbes in the article that answers the question “What Taxes Will I Owe In Retirement?”

People who are accustomed to having employers handle income taxes throughout their working lives, are often surprised when they learn that not working does not mean you are not paying taxes. Income is taxable, whether you are working or not. You will not have to pay into Social Security when you retire, and Medicare becomes a premium, not a deduction from your paycheck. However, there are still taxes to be paid.

Federal income taxes range from 10 to 37 percent, depending on your income bracket and marital status. Pensions, annuities, IRA withdrawals, defined benefit plans, 457 or any other pre-tax retirement accounts will generate tax liabilities.

Is any income tax-free in retirement? Withdrawals from Roth IRAs are tax free, since you paid tax on the money before it went into these accounts. The same goes for the Roth 401(k)s.

Are there taxes on Social Security? Approximately 60% of retirees will not owe federal income taxes on Social Security benefits. However, your Social Security benefits might be taxed, depending upon your retirement income. This tax also varies depending upon where you live. Some states tax Social Security benefits, others do not. Rental income and royalties are also counted as income.

Consumer taxes. Sales tax and property taxes will still need to be paid. For many people, property taxes are their highest tax expenses.

Is there a tax on Medicare? The Medicare Surtax, also known as the Unearned Income Medicare Contribution Surtax or NIIT, is a 3.8% Medicare tax that applies to income from investments and regular income above specific thresholds. For 2020, if you have MAGI (Modified Adjusted Gross Income) above $200,000 ($250,000 for married couples filing jointly), you will have to pay NIIT. This is one that most people do not know about, and can add up quickly, especially if you have great market returns and realized gains.

With good planning, you may be able to replace 100% or more of your pre-retirement income. In many cases, it may mean paying about the same amount in taxes as you did while working. If you do a good job of saving and have a large income during retirement, you will most likely end up paying at least some taxes on retirement income. It is a good problem to have, but still a problem.

All of these retirement taxes add up to quite a nice tax bite, if you are not prepared for them. This is another example of how advance tax planning can make a big difference in the quality of your retirement.

Reference: Forbes (Feb. 23, 2020) “What Taxes Will I Owe In Retirement?”

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