How to Plan in a Time of Uncertainty – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

There’s a saying in estate planning circles that the only people who pay estate taxes are those who don’t plan not to pay estate taxes. While this does not cover every situation, there is a lot of truth to it. A recent article from Financial Advisor entitled “Estate Planning In This Particular Time of Uncertainty” offers strategies and estate planning techniques to be considered during these volatile times.

Gifting Assets into Irrevocable Trusts to Benefit Family Members. If done correctly, this serves to remove the current value and all future appreciation of these assets from your estate. With the federal estate tax exemption ending at the end of 2025, the exemption will drop from $12.06 million per person to nearly half that amount.

Combine this with a time of volatile asset prices and it becomes fairly obvious: this would be a good time to take investments with a lowered value out of the individual owner’s hands and gift them into an irrevocable trust. The lower the value of the asset at the time of the gift, the less the amount of the lifetime exemption that needs to be used. If assets are expected to recover and appreciate, this strategy makes even more sense.

Spousal Limited Access Trust (SLAT). This may be a good time for a related technique, the SLAT, an irrevocable trust created by one spouse to benefit the other and often, the couple’s children. Access to income and principal is created during the spouse’s lifetime. It can even be drafted as a dynasty trust. Assets can be gifted out of the estate to the trust and while the grantor (the person creating the trust) cannot be a beneficiary, their family can. Couples may also create reciprocating SLATs, where each is the beneficiary of the other’s trust, as long as they are careful not to create duplicate trusts, which have been found invalid by courts. Talk with an experienced estate planning attorney about how a SLAT may work for you and your spouse.

What about interest rates? A Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (GRAT), where the grantor contributes assets and enjoys a fixed annuity stream for the life of the trust, may be advantageous now. At the end of the trust term, remaining assets are distributed to family members or a trust for their benefit. To avoid a gift tax on the calculated remainder, due when the trust is created, most GRATs are “zeroed out,” that is, the present value of the annuity stream to the grantor is equal to the amount of the initial funding of the trust. Since you get back what’s been put in, no taxable gift occurs. The lower the interest rate, the higher the value of the income stream. The grantor can take a lower annuity amount and with decent appreciation of assets in the trust, there will be a larger amount as a remainder for heirs. Interest rates need to be considered when looking into GRATs.

Qualified Personal Residence Trust (QPRT) is a trust used to transfer a primary residence to beneficiaries with minimal gift tax consequences. The grantor retains the right to live in the house at no charge for a certain period of time. After the time period ends, the property and any appreciation in value passes to beneficiaries. The valuation for the value of the initial transfer into the trust for gift tax purposes is determined by a calculation relying heavily on interest rates. In this case, a higher interest rate results in a lower present value of the remainder and a lower gift value when the trust is created.

Reference: Financial Advisor (July 8, 2022) “Estate Planning In This Particular Time of Uncertainty”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Is the Proposed IRS Anti-Clawback Provision? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The proposed amendment is designed to fix some loopholes in a 2019 regulation passed in response to the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The 2017 law doubled the value of the estate and gift tax exemption until December 31, 2025, when it goes from $12.06 million to $5.49 million. According to this recent article from Financial Advisor titled “Amending The IRS’s Anti-Clawback Provision on Gifting,” the law generated concern among those who wanted to make large gifts to take advantage of the historically high federal estate and gift tax exemption.

The concern was whether the IRS would attempt to clawback the taxes, if the taxpayer died after 2025. This is when the estate tax reverts back to a much lower number. A regulation was issued in 2019 to reassure taxpayers and explain how they could take advantage of the high exemption as long as they made gifts before 2026, regardless of the exemption at the time of their death.

The IRS recognized this as a good step. However, it had a loophole and hence the new proposed amendment. The amendment provides clarity on what constitutes an actual gift. If the donor garners a benefit from the gift or maintains control over the gift, is it really a gift?

Giving the gift of a promissory note worth $12.06 million to lock in the high exemption and leaving it unpaid until death, for instance, is not a gift. The person is not actually giving anything away until after death. Therefore, the note is part of the taxable estate and bound by the estate tax exemption amount in place at the day of death.

The same goes for a person who gives ownership interests in a limited liability company, while continuing to serve as the company’s manager. Taxpayers must be very careful not to mischaracterize their gifts to stay on the right side of this regulation.

Another example: let’s say a person puts a $12 million vacation home into an LLC, with clear directions for home to be kept in the family, and then makes gifts of the LLC ownership interests to the children. If the donor wants those gifts to max out the current $12.06 million exemption, rather than be subject to the lower exemption in place at the date of death, the owner should not be the manager of the LLC. The same goes for the owner living rent-free in any property he’s gifted to anyone, if the wish is to take advantage of the gifting exemption.

In the same way, a mother who places money into a trust fund for a child may not serve as a trustee and control the assets and distributions, if she wishes to take advantage of the tax benefit.

If your estate plan uses grantor annuity trusts (GRATs), Grantor Retained Income Trusts (GRITs) and qualified personal residence trusts (QPRTs), speak with your estate planning attorney. If you die during the annuity period or term of the trust, your estate may lose the benefit of the anti-clawback regulation.

If the amendment is approved, which is expected in late summer, make sure your estate plan follows the new guidelines. If you are truly giving gifts before 2026, you will likely be able to take advantage of this substantial tax benefit and pass more of your estate to your heirs.

Reference: Financial Advisor (May 27, 2022) “Amending The IRS’s Anti-Clawback Provision on Gifting”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

How Do You Pass Down a Vacation Home? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

If your family enjoys a treasured vacation home, have you planned for what will happen to the property when you die? There are many different ways to keep a vacation home in the family. However, they all require planning to avoid stressful and expensive issues, says a recent article “Your Vacation Home Needs and Estate Plan!” from Kiplinger.

First, establish how your spouse and family members feel about the property. Do they all want to keep it in the family, or have they been attending family gatherings only to please you? Be realistic about whether the next generation can afford the upkeep, since vacation homes need the same care and maintenance as primary residences. If all agree to keep the home and are committed to doing so, consider these three ways to make it happen.

Leave the vacation home to children outright, pre or post-mortem. The simplest way to transfer any property is transferring via a deed. This can lead to some complications down the road. If all children own the property equally, they all have equal weight in making decisions about the use and management of the property. Do your children usually agree on things, and do they have the ability to work well together? Do their spouses get along? Sometimes the simplest solution at the start becomes complicated as time goes on.

If the property is transferred by deed, the children could have a Use and Maintenance Agreement created to set terms and rules for the home’s use. If everyone agrees, this could work. When the children have their own individual interest in the property, they also have the right to leave their share to their own children—they could even give away or sell their shares while they are living. If one child is enmeshed in an ugly divorce, the ex-spouse could end up owning a share of the house.

Create a Limited Liability Company, or LLC. This is a more formalized agreement used to exert more control over the property. An LLC operating agreement contains detailed rules on the use and management of the vacation home. The owner of the property puts the home in the LLC, then can give away interests in the LLC all at once or over a period of years. Your estate planning attorney may advise using the annual exclusion amount, currently at $16,000 per recipient, to make this an estate tax benefit as well.

Consider who you want to have shares in the home. Depending on the laws of your state, the LLC can be used to restrict ownership by bloodline, that is, letting only descendants be eligible for ownership. This could help keep ex-spouses or non-family members from ownership shares.

An LLC is a good option, if the home may be used as a rental property. Correctly created, the LLC can limit liability. Profits can be used to offset expenses, which would likely help maintain the property over many more years than if the children solely funded it.

What about a trust? The house can be placed into an Irrevocable Trust, with the children as beneficiaries. The terms of the trust would govern the management and use of the home. An irrevocable trust would be helpful in shielding the family from any creditor liens.

A Revocable Trust can be used to give the property to family members at the time of your death. A sub-trust, a section of the trust, is used for specific terms of how the property is to be managed, rules about when to sell the property and who is permitted to make the decision to sell it.

A Qualified Personal Residence Trust allows parents to gift the vacation home at a reduced value, while allowing them to use the property for a set term of years. When the term ends, the vacation home is either left outright to the children or it is held in trust for the next generation.

Reference: Kiplinger (Feb. 1, 2022) “Your Vacation Home Needs and Estate Plan!”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys