Is There Estate Tax on the Property I Inherited? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The vast majority of those who inherit real estate don’t end up paying any taxes on the property. However, there are some instances where estate or inheritance taxes could be assessed on inherited real estate. Motley Fool’s recent article, “Do You Have to Pay Estate Tax on Real Estate You Inherit?” provides a rundown of how estate taxes work in the U.S. and what it means to you if you inherit or are gifted real estate assets.

An estate tax is a tax applied on property transfers at death. A gift tax is a tax levied on property transfers while both parties are alive. An inheritance tax is assessed on the individual who inherits the property. For real estate purposes, you should also know that this includes money and property, and real estate is valued based on the fair market value at the time of the decedent’s death.

Most Americans don’t have to worry about estate taxes because we’re allowed to exclude a certain amount of assets from our taxable estates, which is called the lifetime exemption. This amount is adjusted for inflation over time and is $11.58 million per person for 2020. Note that estate taxes aren’t paid by people who inherit the property but are paid directly by the estate before it is distributed to the heirs.

The estate and gift taxes in the U.S. are part of a unified system. The IRS allows an annual exclusion amount that exempts many gifts from any potential transfer tax taxation. In 2020, it’s $15,000 per donor, per recipient. Although money (or assets) exceeding this amount in a given year is reported as a taxable gift, doesn’t mean you’ll need to pay tax on them. However, taxable gifts do accumulate from year to year and count toward your lifetime exclusion. If you passed away in 2020, your lifetime exclusion will be $11.58 million for estate tax purposes.

If you’d given $3 million in taxable gifts during your lifetime, you’ll only be able to exclude $8.58 million of your assets from estate taxation. You’d only be required to pay any gift taxes while you’re alive, if you use up your entire lifetime exemption. If you have given away $11 million prior to 2020 and you give away another $1 million, it would trigger a taxable gift to the extent that your new gift exceeds the $11.58 million threshold.

There are a few special rules to understand, such as the fact that you can give any amount to your spouse in most cases, without any gift or estate tax. Any amount given to charity is also free of gift tax and doesn’t count toward your lifetime exemption. Higher education expenses are free of gift and estate tax consequences provided the payment is made directly to the school. Medical expense payments are free of gift and estate tax consequences, if the payment is made directly to the health care provider.

Remember that some states also have their own estate and/or inheritance taxes that you might need to consider.

States that have an estate tax include Connecticut, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington. The states with an inheritance tax are Iowa, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Maryland has both an estate and an inheritance tax. However, there are very few situations when you would personally have to pay tax on inherited real estate.

Estate tax can be a complex issue, so speak with a qualified estate planning attorney.

Reference: Motley Fool (December 11, 2019) “Do You Have to Pay Estate Tax on Real Estate You Inherit?”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

How Do I Plan for My Incapacity? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The Post-Searchlight’s recent article, “How to go about planning for incapacity,” advises that planning ahead can make certain that your health-care wishes will be carried out, and that your finances will continue to be competently managed.

Incapacity can strike at any time. Advancing age can bring dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, and a serious illness or accident can happen suddenly. Therefore, it’s a real possibility that you or your spouse could become unable to handle your own medical or financial affairs.

If you become incapacitated without the proper plans and documentation in place, a relative or friend will have to petition the court to appoint a guardian for you. This is a public procedure that can be stressful, time consuming and costly. In addition, without your directions, a guardian might not make the decisions you would have made.

Advance medical directives. Without any legal documents that state your wishes, healthcare providers are obligated to prolong your life using artificial means, if necessary, even if you really don’t want this. To avoid this happening to you, sign an advance medical directive. There are three types of advance medical directives: a living will, a durable power of attorney for health care (or health-care proxy) and a Do Not Resuscitate order (DNR). Each of these documents has its own purpose, benefits and drawbacks, and may not be effective in some states. Employ an experienced estate planning attorney to prepare your medical directives to make certain that you have the ones you’ll need and that all documents are consistent.

Living will. This document lets you stipulate the types of medical care you want to receive, despite the fact that you will die as a result of the choice. Check with an estate planning attorney about how living wills are used in your state.

Durable power of attorney for health care. Also called a “health-care proxy,” this document lets you designate a representative to make medical decisions on your behalf.

Do Not Resuscitate order (DNR). This is a physician’s order that tells all other medical staff not to perform CPR, if you go into cardiac arrest. There are two types of DNRs: (i) a DNR that’s only effective while you are hospitalized; and (ii) and DNR that’s used while you’re outside the hospital.

Durable power of attorney (DPOA). This document lets you to name an individual to act on your behalf. There are two types of DPOA: (i) an immediate DPOA. This document is effective immediately; and (ii) a springing DPOA, which isn’t effective until you’ve become incapacitated. Both types end at your death. Note that a springing DPOA isn’t legal in some states, so check with an estate planning attorney.

Incapacity can be determined by (i) physician certification where you can include a provision in a durable power of attorney naming one or more doctors to make the determination, or you can state that your incapacity will be determined by your attending physician at the relevant time; and (ii) judicial finding where a judge is petitioned to determine incapacity where a hearing is held where medical and other testimony will be heard.

Reference: The Post-Searchlight (December 13, 2019) “How to go about planning for incapacity”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Does an Estate Planning Attorney Really Do? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Vents Magazine’s recent article, “Understanding What an Estate Planning Attorney Does,” explains that estate planning is a legal set of instructions for your family about how to distribute your wealth and property after you die. Estate planning attorneys make sure the distribution of property happens according to the decedent’s will.

An estate planning attorney can provide legal advice on how to prepare your will after you pass away or in the event that you experience mental incapacity. She will have all the information and education on all the legal processes, beginning with your will and moving on to other important estate planning documents. She will also help you to understand estate taxes.

An estate planning attorney will also help to make certain that all of your savings and property are safe and distributed through the proper legal processes.

Estate planning attorneys can also assist with the power of attorney and health care directives. These documents allow you to designate an individual to decide issues on your behalf, in the event that you become mentally incapable of making decisions for yourself. They can also help you with a guardian who will look after your estate.

It’s important that you select the right estate planning attorney to execute the legal process, as you’ve instructed in your estate plan. You should only retain an attorney with experience in this field of law because other legal counsel won’t be able to help you with these issues—or at least, they may say they can, only to find out later that they’re not experienced in this area.

You also want to feel comfortable with your estate planning attorney because you must disclose all your life details, plans and estate issues, so she can create an estate plan that’s customized to your circumstances.

If you choose the right attorney, it will save you money in the long run. She will help you save from all the estate taxes and make all the processes smooth and easy for you and your loved ones.

Reference: Vents Magazine (December 12, 2019) “Understanding What an Estate Planning Attorney Does”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

How Can Life Insurance Help My Estate Plan? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

In the 1990s, it wasn’t unusual for people to buy second-to-die life insurance policies to help pay federal estate taxes. However, in 2019, with estate tax exclusions up to $11,400,000 (and rising with the cost-of-living adjustments), fewer people would owe much for estate taxes.

However, IRAs, 401(k)s, and other accounts are still 100% taxable to the individuals, spouses and their children. The stretch IRA options still exist, but they may go away, as Congress may limit stretch IRAs to a maximum of 10 years.

Forbes’ recent article, “3 Ways Life Insurance Can Help Your Estate Plan,” explains that as the IRA is giving income from the RMDs, it may also be added, after tax, to the life insurance policy. If this occurs, it’s even possible that the death benefits could grow in the future, giving a cost-of-living benefit to children. This is one way how life insurance can be used creatively to help your estate plan.

For married couples, one strategy is to consider how life insurance on one individual could be used to pay “conversion tax” at death, using tax-free benefits. When the retiree dies, the spouse beneficiary can then convert all the IRA (taxable money) to a Roth IRA, which is tax-exempt with new, lower income tax rates (37% in 2018-2025 versus 39.6% in 2017 or earlier).

This tax-free death benefit money can be used to pay the taxes on the conversion, letting the surviving beneficiary have a lifetime of tax-exempt income without RMD issues from the Roth IRA. The Social Security income could also be tax-exempt, because Roth withdrawals don’t count as “income” in the calculation to see how much of your Social Security is taxed. However, you’d have to be within the threshold for any other combined income.

Life insurance for both individuals (if married) may also be a good idea. If the spouse of the IRA owner dies, the money from the life insurance can be used once again. If this is done in the tax year of the death for married individuals, the tax conversion could be done under “married filing status” before the next year, when the individual must use single tax filing status.

Another benefit of the IRA-to-Roth conversion is the passing of Roth IRAs to heirs, which could create a lasting legacy, if planned well. New life insurance policies that add long-term care features with chronic care and critical care benefits can also provide an extra degree of benefits, if one of the insureds has health issues prior to death.

Be sure to watch the tax rates and possible changes. With today’s lower tax rates, this could be very beneficial. Remember that there are usually individual state taxes as well. However, considering all the tax-optimized benefits to spouses and beneficiaries, the long-term tax benefits outweigh the lifetime tax liabilities, especially when you also consider SSI tax benefits for the surviving spouse and no RMD issues.

Life insurance in retirement can help protect, build and transfer wealth in one of the easiest ways possible. If you’re not certain about where to start with your life insurance needs, speak with an experienced estate planning attorney.

Reference: Forbes (November 15, 2019) “3 Ways Life Insurance Can Help Your Estate Plan”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

How Do I Reduce My Blended Family Fighting Concerning My Estate Plan? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The IRS recently announced that in 2020, the first $11.58 million of a taxable estate is free from federal estate taxes. Therefore, a vast majority of estates won’t have to pay federal estate taxes. However, a TD Wealth survey at the 53rd Annual Heckerling Institute on Estate Planning found that family conflict was identified as the leading threat to estate planning.

Investment News’ recent article, “Reducing potential family conflicts,” explains that a blended family can result from multiple marriages, children from a current or former marriage, or children involved in multiple marriages. There are more “blended families” in the U.S. than ever before. More fighting over estate planning occurs in blended families.

The key element in any conflict resolution is open and honest communication. It’s especially the case, when it involves a blended family. In many instances, it’s best to explain a proposed estate plan to the family in advance.

If anyone objects, listen to their point of view and try to be empathetic to their position. You may wind up with a compromise, or, if no changes are made, at least the family member had an opportunity to air their grievances.

One potential solution to minimize conflicts within a blended family may be a prenuptial agreement. The agreement is signed prior to the marriage and outlines the financial rights of each spouse, in the event of a divorce or death. Prenups are particularly useful in second marriages, especially when there is a disparity in age and wealth between the parties.

However, not every married couple in a blended family has a prenuptial agreement. Even if they do, blended families can still have family conflicts in estate planning.

It is important to remember communication, reducing the chances of a will contest with a “no-contest” clause, asking your attorney about a revocable living trust and compromise.

Estate planning can be particularly difficult for blended families. Talk with an experienced estate planning attorney about the techniques that can help reduce potential family conflicts.

Reference: Investment News (December 9, 2019) “Reducing potential family conflicts”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What’s the Best Way to Take My Required Minimum Distribution? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

CNBC’s recent article, “These tips can help retirees make required minimum distributions easy and tax penalty free,” gives the steps to follow, so we don’t leave money on the table.

RMDs or required minimum distributions, are the minimum amount people age 70½ and older must withdraw from their retirement funds. If you’ve inherited a retirement account, you may also have to make a withdrawal. The amount you need to withdraw varies from year to year and is based on specific calculations, including what your account values were as of December 31 the prior year and your age.

The time to get started on your RMD for this year is right now, because the paperwork may take some time. You have until April 1, if you just turned 70½ this year. Let’s look at a few tips:

Get your paperwork organized. In order to know how much you have to withdraw, you have to have an accurate picture of what you own. Create a list of accounts and take an inventory first, so you know where all your retirement accounts are located.

Know what you can take from what account. If you have multiple IRAs, you can take your total RMD from any one of those accounts because of the aggregation rule. However, with multiple IRAs, you still must calculate the amount you take out based on the value of all of them. It’s that same with multiple 403(b) retirement accounts. The rule doesn’t apply to 401(k) plans. If you have multiple 401(k) accounts, you must take money from each one, and you can’t take an RMD from an IRA to satisfy a 401(k), or vice versa.

Understand the rules, if you’re still working. If you’re 70½ and still employed, you could get a break from taking your RMD in certain circumstances. Generally, 401(k) plans have a still-working rule, which stipulates that you don’t have to take the RMD until you retire. However, you can only delay the RMDs, if the plan is attached to the company where you’re currently employed. Other accounts from a previous employer are excluded, so you must still take distributions from those.

Keep an eye on any inherited accounts. If you’ve inherited a retirement account, you may have to take an RMD by the end of this year. That generally doesn’t apply if you inherited the money from your spouse, because spouses can do a rollover and keep postponing the distributions. However, if you’re a non-spouse beneficiary, you probably must take a distribution by the end of 2019. If you inherited the account in 2018, you’ll need to take your first RMD in 2019.

RMDs from a Roth IRA will likely be tax-free. However, if you’ve inherited one of these accounts and you didn’t take that money out, you’ll have to pay a 50% penalty on the funds you should’ve withdrawn.

Consider giving to charity. A good way to avoid paying taxes on your RMD, is to give the money to charity. A qualified charitable distribution lets you make donations to a charity directly from your IRA, instead of taking the RMD yourself. Therefore, if your RMD is $5,000, and you typically give $5,000 to charity each year, you can donate that money directly and not pay tax on it.

Reference: CNBC (November 29, 2019) “These tips can help retirees make required minimum distributions easy and tax penalty free”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Why Even “Regular Folks” Can Benefit from Trust Funds – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

A trust is a useful tool, even if you’re not a wealthy person. There are many different types of trusts, but the most basic types are revocable and irrevocable. A recent article from Business Insider “A trust fund gives you control over your money after you’re gone, and it’s not just for the super rich” clarifies when and how to use a trust fund.

Trust funds are often used to avoid having assets pass through the probate process. They allow for a tax-efficient means of transferring wealth, avoid or defer estate taxes and help with charitable giving. An experienced estate planning attorney can help clarify what type of trust is needed, and how it can work with an overall estate plan.

Trust funds have a bad reputation for creating badly-behaved young adults, but they are a good planning tool for anyone. Some trusts are more expensive to maintain than others, which is why they are often associated with wealthy people. However, they have the same purpose: to ensure that a person’s money goes where they want it to go. The directions can be as specific as you wish.

There are three people involved in any trust: the grantor, who puts their assets in the trust fund; the beneficiary or beneficiaries, who receive those assets according to the terms of the trust; and the trustee, the person or group of advisors or the organization that is responsible for managing the trust when the trust is created and after the grantor has died. A grantor can put almost any kind of asset into a trust, but most people use them for real estate, bank accounts, investment accounts, business interests and life insurance policies.

If a trust is revocable, it means the grantor may make changes at any time and can generate income through the assets in the trust. The assets are included in the grantor’s estate and the grantor may pay taxes on the assets now and upon their death. Creditors can access the assets for any unpaid debts. Once the grantor of a revocable trust dies, the trust becomes irrevocable.

An irrevocable trust cannot be changed, once it is created. It can only be accessed after the death of the grantor. The assets are not included in the grantor’s estate and they do not have to pay taxes during their lifetime or at death. The taxes are the responsibility of the trust and beneficiaries. Depending on how the trust is designed, creditors may not access the trust.

If you are considering setting up a trust, meet with an estate planning lawyer to discuss your unique situation and determine which type of trust works best for you and your family.

Reference: Business Insider (December 2, 2019) “A trust fund gives you control over your money after you’re gone, and it’s not just for the super rich”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What 2020 Tax Changes May Bring for Wealthy Families – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

What happens in the political landscape in 2020 could have an impact on wealthy individuals, in a positive and a negative way. The biggest impact may be changes in estate and income taxes. With income taxes, the tax brackets are indexed, so they will go higher in 2020. There are also new IRS thresholds, so people will need to be aware of these changes.

The article “What Wealthy Clients Need to Know About 2020 Tax Changes” from Financial Advisor offers a look at what’s coming next year.

The tax rates were generally lowered, and thresholds increased. The top bracket for married couples in 2017 was 39.6% for couples whose taxable income was higher than $470,700. In 2020, that same bracket is 37%, with a new income threshold of $622,051.

There are more holiday gifts from the IRS. The estate exemption increases to $11.58 million in 2020, although the annual exclusion for gifts stays at $15,000. The maximums for retirement account contributions have also been increased.

The mandated penalty for not having health insurance is gone. Therefore, anyone who has the income to self-insure without having a policy that is ACA-qualified won’t have to pay a penalty. However, that varies by state: California enforces a tax penalty for people who do not have health insurance.

A major consideration for 2020 is the higher standard deduction. This may mean more strategic planning for which years people should itemize. Some experts are advising that taxpayers bunch their deductions, so they can itemize. One strategy is to do this every other year.

Many nonprofits are advising their donors to plan their charitable giving to take place every other year for the same reason.

With the stock market continuing to hit record highs, it may also make sense for people to transfer highly appreciated securities to donor advised funds.

Another potentially big series of changes that is still pending is the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019. The legislation is still pending, but it is likely that some form of the bill will become law, and there will be further changes regarding retirement accounts and taxes. The bill passed the House in the spring, but it still pending in the Senate.

Reference: Financial Advisor (December 2, 2019) “What Wealthy Clients Need to Know About 2020 Tax Changes”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Happens to Estate Tax Benefits After 2025? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

You may recall that the 2017 Republican tax reform legislation roughly doubled the estate and gift tax exemption.

This means starting in 2019, people are permitted to pass on, tax-free, $11.4 million from their estate and gifts they give before their death. Couples can pass on twice that amount, or $22.8 million.

These higher levels expire in 2026, but those who make large gifts while the exemption is higher and die after it goes back down, won’t see the estate tax benefit eroded, the IRS announced recently via new regulations.

“As a result, individuals planning to make large gifts between 2018 and 2025 can do so, without concern that they will lose the tax benefit of the higher exclusion level once it decreases after 2025,” the agency said in a press release.

Yahoo Finance’s recent article, “IRS Says Millionaires Can Keep Estate Tax Benefits After 2025,” says that the exemption increase was a big priority for Republicans in the 2017 tax overhaul.

This exemption decreased the number of individuals who’d be subject to the 40% estate tax by about two-thirds.

The exemption was $5.5 million prior to the law change.

However, Democrats are looking to reverse those changes, if they sweep the House, Senate and White House in the 2020 national elections.

Nearly every Democratic presidential candidate would like to see the estate tax apply to a greater number of wealthy families.

Senator Bernie Sanders has called for the estate tax, to begin when fortunes are worth at least $3.5 million. He has also proposed rates as high as 77%.

Reference: Yahoo Finance (November 22, 2019) “IRS Says Millionaires Can Keep Estate Tax Benefits After 2025”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Will We Have to Pay Gift Taxes if We Give a Rental Property to Our Son? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Older couples frequently invest in real estate. Many manage rental properties as an income stream.

Let’s say that a couple jointly bought a rental property worth $120,000 this year with their adult son. The son started his own limited liability company (LLC) and is a single owner. The parents plan to transfer the property to him, so he can use the rental income from the business for college expenses.

A common question is whether there will be any tax implication for the parents, if they move the property to their son’s LLC. The Washington Post’s recent article, “How to avoid gift taxes when shifting ownership of rental property to offspring,” answers that question by first assuming that the parents and the son purchased the rental property together in their own names. The son recently set up the LLC to use as the holding company for this rental property and other real estate properties he may own.

As far as gift tax implications, the couple have the ability to give their son $30,000 this year without having to file any federal gift tax forms or having any effect on their federal income taxes. Each person has the ability to gift another individual up to $15,000 a year without any IRS issues or the filing of forms. If each parent gave their son $30,000 this year and $30,000 next year, then that would effectively transfer their share of the property to him.

We’ll also assume that when they purchased the property, the parents paid closing costs and may have had other expenses while they’ve owned the property. Those expenses would play a part when calculating the tax basis of the property.

Assuming that the parents and their son each paid $60,000 for the property, when the son transfers the property from all the owners’ names into the LLC, the parents may have a taxable event for IRS purposes. That’s because the parents are effectively giving away ownership of their share of the property to their son. He’ll now own the property on his own. If the son signs a promissory note to the parents for $60,000 at the time of the transfer to the LLC, he’ll have an obligation to repay them the money for their share over the next six months. They could forgive $30,000 of the debt immediately and then they could forgive the other $30,000 in the new year. Their son would probably owe a little interest, but he could probably pay that from the income he receives from the rent.

This is just one solution to the transfer. There are many others, and some are much more complicated. Speak with an experienced estate planning attorney to review these issues and explore some other ideas that could work to everyone’s benefit.

Reference: The Washington Post (November 11, 2019) “How to avoid gift taxes when shifting ownership of rental property to offspring”

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

For Immediate Release

Contact: Jane Frankel Sims

410-828-7775

Contact: Frank Campbell

410-263-1667

Sims & Campbell Estates and Trusts

Frankel Sims Law and Holden & Campbell
Merge to Form Sims & Campbell

Firm will offer comprehensive Trusts & Estates services through offices in Towson and Annapolis

TOWSON, Md. (April 26,2019)  Frankel Sims Law and Holden & Campbell have jointly announced the merger of their firms to create a boutique Trusts & Estates law firm providing comprehensive services in the fields of Estate Planning, Estate Administration, Trust Administration and Charitable Giving. The combined firm will be named Sims & Campbell and have offices in Towson, Md. and Annapolis, Md.  Jane Frankel Sims and Frank Campbell will lead and hold equal ownership stakes in the firm.

Sims & Campbell will have 9 attorneys and 15 legal professionals that handle every facet of estate and wealth transfer planning, including wills, revocable living trusts, irrevocable trusts, estate and gift tax advice, and charitable giving strategies.  The firm will focus solely on Trusts & Estates but will serve a wide range of clients, from young families with modest resources to ultra-high net worth individuals.  This allows clients to remain with the firm as their level of wealth and the complexity of related estate and tax implications change over time. 

“By joining forces, we have expanded our footprint to conveniently serve clients in Maryland, D.C. and Virginia” said Jane Frankel Sims.  We are seeing some of the greatest wealth transfer in our country’s history, and we want to continue to be on the leading edge of helping our clients maintain and enhance their family’s wealth.  In addition, we aim to serve our clients for years to come, and the new firm structure will allow Sims & Campbell to thrive even after Frank and I have retired.”    

“Jane and I have always admired each other’s firms and recognized the need to provide even greater depth and breadth of focused expertise to help families amass and protect their wealth from generation to generation,” said Frank Campbell.  “Now we have even greater capabilities to make a real difference for our clients.” 

The Sims & Campbell Towson office is located at 500 York Road, on the corner of York Road and Pennsylvania Avenue in the heart of Towson.  The Annapolis office is currently located at 716 Melvin Avenue, and is moving to 181 Truman Parkway in August, 2019.  For more information, visit www.simscampbell.law.