Benefit Controlled Trust May Be Answer to Protecting Legacy – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

When beneficiaries receive their inheritance in their own names, a legacy becomes vulnerable to creditors, lawsuits, divorce and a second estate tax when they die. Complicating matters further, if the heir receives means-tested government benefits, their benefits may be lost if they receive a direct inheritance.

There is a solution, explains the article “What a Beneficiary Controlled Trust Can Do to Protect Your Legacy After You Are Gone” from Kiplinger. Having each beneficiary’s inheritance go into their own Beneficiary Controlled Trust can protect your legacy. Properly created and funded, the beneficiary may control, use and enjoy their inheritance with less risk than outright ownership. A Beneficiary Controlled Trust protects loved ones from the ups and downs of life. Divorce, lawsuits, creditor claims, bankruptcy are all unpleasant, but they do happen.

A Spendthrift Trust is used for beneficiaries who cannot be trusted to make good financial decisions, or who have people in their lives who cannot be trusted. It is like a spigot on a garden hose. The trustee decides when the beneficiary should receive access to assets, how much and when.

In a Beneficiary Controlled Trust, the beneficiary can also be the controlling trustee. The beneficiary has the same level of control as they would with outright ownership. They can make investment decisions. Assets, including real property or investment accounts, are owned by the trust.

After inheritance, the primary beneficiary has the ability to alter the level of control or protection, if they are concerned about upcoming risks. If the risk is particularly strong, for example, a contentious divorce, the primary beneficiary may resign as a trustee and appoint a trusted family member or professional to act as a trustee.

Another trust is a HEMS trust, one limited to providing distributions for the beneficiary’s Health, Education, Maintenance and Support. HEMS trusts are used to avoid estate tax. However, in some states, certain creditors, including divorcing spouses or health care providers, are permitted to pierce the trust and access assets.

If the primary beneficiary of a Beneficiary Controlled Trust wishes to enhance asset protection, they can appoint an independent trustee who serves as the distribution trustee. They may make distributions to the beneficiary at their discretion, which can provide another level of protection. The beneficiary may not wish to giver such broad discretion to an independent trustee, as in the case of Brittney Spears. This can be minimized by giving the primary beneficiary the right to remove and replace the independent trustee. The beneficiary will not have direct control over the distributions, but they decide who will manage the trust. The person may not be a related party or subordinate person.

Taxes should always be a consideration when creating trusts. Your estate planning attorney should review goals, concerns, and your unique situation to determine which type of trust works best for you and your family.

Reference: Kiplinger (Sep. 13, 2021) “What a Beneficiary Controlled Trust Can Do to Protect Your Legacy After You Are Gone”

 

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What are the Key Documents in Estate Planning? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

A basic estate plan can be fairly straightforward to create with the help of an experienced estate planning attorney.

Here are the main items you need in an estate plan. However, ask your estate planning attorney about what else you may need in your specific circumstances.

Bankrate’s recent article entitled “Estate planning checklist: 3 key steps to making a successful plan” says there are three things you need in every good estate plan: Last Will and Testament, Power(s) of Attorney and an Advance Healthcare Directive – and each serves a different purpose. Let us look at these:

A Last Will and Testament. This is the cornerstone of your estate plan.  A Will instructs the way in which your assets should be distributed.

Everyone needs a Will, even if it is a very basic one. If you do nothing else in planning your estate, at least create a Will, so you do not die intestate and leave the decisions to the courts.

A Power of Attorney (POA). This document permits you to give a person the ability to take care of your affairs while you are still living. A financial POA can help, if you are incapacitated and unable to manage your finances or pay your bills. A medical POA can also help a loved one take care of healthcare decisions on your behalf.

With a financial POA, you can give as much or as little power over your financial affairs as you want. Note that when establishing this document, you should have a conversation with your POA Agent, so if called upon, he or she will have a good understanding of what they can and cannot do financially for you. A healthcare POA also allows a person to make healthcare decisions, if you are unable to do so.

An Advance Healthcare Directive. This document instructs medical staff how you want them to handle your health-related decisions, if you are unable to choose or communicate. It includes resuscitation, sustaining your quality of life, pain management and end-of-life care.

Reference: Bankrate (July 23, 2021) “Estate planning checklist: 3 key steps to making a successful plan”

 

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What are Biggest Mistakes in Estate Planning? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Bankrate’s recent article entitled “Estate planning checklist: 3 key steps to making a successful plan” talks about five things to watch out for with an estate plan. Therefore, as you are making your estate plan, carefully consider everything, and that means it may take some time to complete your plan.  Let us look at five things to watch out for in that process:

  1. Plan your estate now. Of course, it is not just the old and infirm who need an estate plan. Everyone needs a last will so that their last wishes are respected, knowing that the unexpected can happen at any time.
  2. Say who will take care of your minor children. While last wills may typically focus on what happens to your financial assets, you will also want to specify what happens to any minor children on your passing, namely who takes care of them. If you have underage children, you must state who would be a guardian for that child and where that child will live. Without a last will, a judge will decide who will take care of your children. That could be a family member or a state-appointed guardian.
  3. 3. Ask executors if they are willing and able to take on the task. An executor carries out the instructions in your last will. This may be a complicated and time-consuming task. It involves distributing money in accordance with the stipulations of the document and ensuring that the estate is moved properly through the legal system. Make sure you designate an executor who is up to the task. That means you will need to speak with them and make certain that he or she is willing and able to act.
  4. Consider if you want to leave it all to your children. Many young families simply give all their assets to their children when they die. However, if the parents pass away when the children are young, and they do not establish a trust, they have access to all of the money when they reach the age of majority. This could be a great sum of money for a young adult to inherit with no rules on how to use it.
  5. Keep your estate plan up to date. You should review your estate plan regularly, at least every five years to be sure that everything is still how you intend it and that tax laws have not changed in the interim. Your plan could be vastly out of date, depending on changes since you first drafted it.

Estate planning can be a process where you demonstrate to your friends and family how much you care about them and how you have remembered them with certain assets or property.

It is a way to ensure that your loved ones do not have months of work trying to handle your estate.

Reference: Bankrate (July 23, 2021) “Estate planning checklist: 3 key steps to making a successful plan”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Should I Know about Cryptocurrency and Estate Planning? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Cryptocurrency is a digital currency that can be used to buy online goods and services, explains Forbes’ recent article entitled “Cryptocurrency And Estate Planning: What Digital Investors Should Know.” Part of cryptocurrency’s appeal is the technology that backs it. Blockchain is a decentralized system that records and manages transactions across many computers and is very secure.

As of June 24, the total value of all cryptocurrencies was $1.35 trillion, according to CoinMarketCap. There are many available cryptocurrencies. However, the most popular ones include Bitcoin, Ethereum, Binance Coin and Dogecoin. Many believe cryptocurrency will be a main currency in the future, and they are opting to buy it now. They also like the fact that central banks are not involved in the process, so they cannot interfere with its value.

In addition, NFTs or non-fungible tokens, are also gaining in popularity. Each token is one of a kind and they are also supported by blockchain technology. They can be anything digital, such as artwork or music files. NFTs are currently being used primarily as a way to buy and sell digital art. An artist could sell their original digital artwork to a buyer. The buyer is the owner of the exclusive original, but the artist might retain proprietary rights to feature the artwork or make copies of it. The popularity of NFTs is centered around the social value of fine art collecting in the digital space.

Here are three reasons to have an estate plan, if you buy bitcoin:

  1. No probate. Even if your loved ones knew you had cryptocurrency, and even if they knew where you stored your password, that would not be enough for them to get access to it. Without a proper estate plan, your digital assets may be put through a lengthy and expensive probate process.
  2. Blockchain technology. You must have a private key to access each of your assets. It is usually a long passcode. A comprehensive estate plan that includes this can help you have peace of mind knowing that your investments can be passed on to loved ones’ if anything were to happen to you unexpectedly.
  3. Again, central banks do not play any part in the process, and it is secure because its processing and recording are spread across many different computers. However, there is no governing body overseeing the affairs of cryptocurrency.

Reference: Forbes (July 21, 2021) “Cryptocurrency And Estate Planning: What Digital Investors Should Know”

 

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What’s an Enhanced Life Estate? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

First Coast News’ recent article entitled “Deed named for former first lady could be key to planning your estate” explains that a strategy that is available in Florida and a few other states is called an enhanced life estate or a “Lady Bird” deed, named after former First Lady, Lady Bird Johnson.

This deed states that when I die, you get the property, but until then, I reserve all rights to do whatever I want with it. That contrasts with a traditional life estate where a property owner can plan for one or more others to inherit their house.

Typically, the person with a life estate has a lot less control over what happens in the future, including potentially being thwarted by the very person you are tapping to receive your property at your death, in case you decide you no longer want the house while you are still alive.

The problem is, now you want to sell the property, but since they are a co-owner, they can refuse. And there is nothing you can do about it.

Enhanced life estates are also about protecting property and its eventual recipient from creditors after the death of the owner. That is the benefit of avoiding probate. Medicaid or any other creditor may become a creditor in probate.

A Lady Bird deed supersedes a will.

But there are downsides to the Lady Bird deed. A big drawback is if you change your mind. You have to now record another deed in the public record to remove that, and every deed that you record creates one thing that could go wrong.

However, this can be true of any change made in hope of overriding an earlier estate decision, and Lady Bird deeds are fairly straightforward.

Ask an experienced estate planning attorney if this type of arrangement is available in your state.

Reference: First Coast News (July 19, 2021) “Deed named for former first lady could be key to planning your estate”

 

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No Kids? What Happens to My Estate? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Just because you do not have children or heirs does not mean you should not write a will. If you decide to have children later on, a will can help protect their financial future. However, even if you die with no children, a will can help you ensure that your assets will go to the people, institutions, or organizations of your own choosing. As a result, estate planning is necessary for everyone.

Claremont Portside’s recent article entitled “What Happens to Your Estate If You Die With No Children” says that your estate will go to your spouse or common-law partner, unless stated otherwise in your will. If you do not have any children or a spouse or common-law partner, your estate will go to your living parents. Typically, your estate will be divided equally between them. If you do not have children, a spouse, or living parents, your estate will go to your siblings. If there are any deceased siblings, their share will go to their children.

The best way to make certain your estate goes to the right people, and that your loved ones can divide your assets as easily as possible, is to write a will. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney to help you. As part of this process, you must name an executor. This is a person you appoint who will have the responsibility of administering your estate after you die.

It is not uncommon for people to appoint one of their children as the executor of their will. But if you do not have children, you can appoint another family member or a friend. Select someone who is trustworthy, responsible, impartial and has the mental and emotional resources to take on this responsibility while mourning your death.

You should also be sure to update your will after every major event in your life, like a marriage, the death of one of your intended beneficiaries and divorce. In addition, specifically designating beneficiaries and indicating what they will receive from your estate will help prevent any disputes or contests after your death. If you have no children, you might leave a part (or your entire) estate to friends, and you can also name charities and other organizations as beneficiaries.

It is important to name who should receive items of sentimental value, such as family heirlooms, and it is a good idea to discuss this with your loved ones, in case there are any disputes in the future.

Even without children, estate planning can be complicated, so plan your estate well in advance. That way, when something happens to you, your assets will pass to the right people and your last wishes will be carried out. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney for assistance in creating a comprehensive estate plan.

Reference: Claremont Portside “What Happens to Your Estate If You Die with No Children”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Exactly Is a Trust? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

MSN Money’s recent article entitled “What is a trust?” explains that many people create trusts to minimize issues and costs for their families or to create a legacy of charitable giving. Trusts can be used in conjunction with a last will to instruct where your assets should go after you die. However, trusts offer several great estate planning benefits that you do not get in a last will, like letting your heirs to see a relatively speedy conclusion to settling your estate.

Working with an experienced estate planning attorney, you can create a trust to minimize taxes, protect assets and spare your family from going through the lengthy probate process to divide up your assets after you pass away. A trust can also let you control to whom your assets will be disbursed, as well as how the money will be paid out. That is a major point if the beneficiary is a child or a family member who does not have the ability to handle money wisely. You can name a trustee to execute your wishes stated in the trust document. When you draft a trust, you can:

  • Say where your assets go and when your beneficiaries have access to them
  • Save your beneficiaries from paying estate taxes and court fees
  • Shield your assets from your beneficiaries’ creditors or from loss through divorce settlements
  • Instruct where your remaining assets should go if a beneficiary dies, which can be helpful in a family that includes second marriages and stepchildren; and
  • Avoid a long probate court process.

One of the most common trusts is called a living or revocable trust, which lets you put assets in a trust while you are alive. The control of the trust is transferred after you die to beneficiaries that you named. You might want to ask an experienced estate planning attorney about creating a living trust for several reasons, such as:

  • If you would like someone else to take on the management responsibilities for some or all of your property
  • If you have a business and want to be certain that it operates smoothly with no interruption of income flow, if you die or become disabled
  • If you want to shield assets from the incompetency or incapacity of yourself or your beneficiaries; or
  • If you want to decrease the chances that your will may be contested.

A living trust can be a smart move for those with even relatively modest estates. The downside is that while a revocable trust will usually keep your assets out of probate if you were to die, there still will be estate taxes if you hit the threshold.

By contrast, an irrevocable trust cannot be changed once it has been created. You also relinquish control of the assets you put into the trust. However, an irrevocable trust has a key advantage in that it can protect beneficiaries from probate and estate taxes.

In addition, there are many types of specialty trusts you can create. Each is structured to accomplish different goals. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about these.

Reference: MSN Money (July 9, 2021) “What is a trust?

 

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Do You Pay Income Tax when You Sell Inherited Property? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

From the description above, it is clear the family had a plan for their land. However, from the question posed in a recent article titled “I inherited land that recently sold. What will I owe in taxes?” from The Washington Post, it is clear the plan ended with the sale of the property.

For an heir who is expecting to receive a share of the proceeds, as directed in the mother’s last will, the question of taxes is a good one. What value of the land is used to determine the heir’s tax liability?

The good news: when the great grandfather died, the land passed to the mother and her siblings. To keep this example simple, let’s assume the great-grandfather’s estate was well under the federal estate tax limits of his time and there were no federal estate taxes due.

Next, the mother and her siblings inherit the land. When a person inherits an asset, they usually inherit both the asset and the step-up in the value of the asset at the time of the person’s death. If the great-grandfather bought the land for $10,000 and when he died the land was worth $100,000, the mother and her siblings inherited it at that value.

When the uncles sold the land after the death of their sister, the mother, her heirs inherited her interest in the land. If the person asking about taxes is an only child and an only beneficiary, then he should receive his mother’s one-third share of the land or one-third share in the proceeds. With the stepped-up basis rules, the son inherits the land at its value at the time of the mother’s death.

Assuming the land was worth $300,000 at the time of her death, the son’s share of the land would be worth $100,000. That is his cost or basis in the land. If he sold the land around the time she died or up to a year after her death, receiving his share of $100,000, he would not have any federal income or capital gains to pay.

If the family sold the land for $390,000 recently, the son’s basis in the land is $100,000 and his sales proceeds would be $130,000, or a $30,000 profit. He would be responsible for paying taxes on the $30,000.

If the land was sold within a year of the mother’s death, there would be no tax to pay. However, after one year, any profit is taxed at the capital gains rate.

There will also be state taxes due on the profit and there is an additional 3.8 percent tax on the sale of investment property. If the son used the home on the land as a primary residence, there would not be an investment property sales tax.

In this kind of situation where there are multiple heirs, it is best to consult with an estate planning attorney to ensure that the transaction and taxes are handled correctly.

Reference: The Washington Post (July 26, 2021) “I inherited land that recently sold. What will I owe in taxes?”

 

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Aging Parents and Blended Families Create Estate Planning Challenges – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Law school teaches about estate planning and inheritance, but experience teaches about family dynamics, especially when it comes to blended families with aging parents and step-siblings. Not recognizing the realities of step-sibling relationships can put an estate plan at risk, advises the article “Could Your Aging Parents’ Estate Plan Create A Nightmare For Step-Siblings?” from Forbes. The estate plan has to be designed with realistic family dynamics in mind.

Trouble often begins when one parent loses the ability to make decisions. That is when trusts are reviewed for language addressing what should happen, if one of the trustees becomes incapacitated. This also occurs in powers of attorney, health care directives and wills. If the elderly person has been married more than once and there are step-siblings, it is important to have candid discussions. Putting all of the adult children into the mix because the parents want them to have equal involvement could be a recipe for disaster.

Here is an example: a father develops dementia at age 86 and can no longer care for himself. His younger wife has become abusive and neglectful, so much so that she has to be removed from the home. The father has two children from a prior marriage and the wife has one from a first marriage. The step-siblings have only met a few times, and do not know each other. The father’s trust listed all three children as successors, and the same for the healthcare directive. When the wife is removed from the home, the battle begins.

The same thing can occur with a nuclear family but is more likely to occur with blended families. Here are some steps adult children can take to protect the whole family:

While parents are still competent, ask who they would want to take over, if they became disabled and cannot manage their finances. If it is multiple children and they do not get along, address the issue and create the necessary documents with an estate planning attorney.

Plan for the possibility that one or both parents may lose the ability to make decisions about money and health in the future.

If possible, review all the legal documents, so you have a complete understanding of what is going to happen in the case of incapacity or death. What are the directions in the trust, and who are the successor trustees? Who will have to take on these tasks, and how will they be accomplished?

If there are any questions, a family meeting with the estate planning attorney is in order. Most experienced estate planning attorneys have seen just about every situation you can imagine and many that you cannot. They should be able to give your family guidance, even connecting you with a social worker who has experience in blended families, if the problems seem unresolvable.

Reference: Forbes (June 28, 2021) “Could Your Aging Parents’ Estate Plan Create A Nightmare For Step-Siblings?”

 

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How to Prepare for Higher Taxes – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Taxing the appreciation of property on gifting or at death, as capital gains or ordinary income, is under scrutiny as a means of raising significant revenue for the federal government. The Biden administration has proposed this, but proposing and passing into law are two very different things, observes Financial Advisor in the article “How Rich Clients Should Prepare For A Biden Estate Tax Regime.”

The tax hikes are being considered as a means of paying for the American Jobs Act and the American Families Act. Paired with the COVID-19 relief bill, the government will need a total of $6.4 trillion over the course of a decade to cover those costs. Reportedly, both Republicans and Democrats are pushing back on this proposal.

A step-up in basis recalculates the value of appreciated assets for tax purposes when they are inherited, which is when the asset’s value usually is higher than when it was originally purchased. For the beneficiary, the step-up in basis at the death of the original owner reduces the capital gains tax on the asset. Taxes are reduced significantly, or in some cases, completely eliminated.

For now, taxpayers pay an estate tax on the value of the assets and the basis of appreciated assets is stepped up to fair market value. The plan under consideration would treat appreciated assets owned at the time of death as sold, which would trigger income tax and subject those assets to estate tax.

Biden’s proposal would also subject many families to the estate tax, which they would not otherwise face, since the federal estate tax exclusion is still historically high—$11.7 million for individuals and $23.4 million for married couples. Let’s say a widowed mother dies with a $3 million estate. Most of the value of the estate is the home she lived in with her spouse for the last four decades. Her estate would not owe any federal tax, but the deemed sale of a highly appreciated home would generate income tax liability.

The proposal allows a $1 million per individual and $2 million per married couple exclusion from gain recognition on property transferred by gift or owned at death. The $1 million per person exclusion is in addition to exclusions for property transfers of tangible personal property, transfers to a spouse, transfers to charity, capital gains on certain business stock and the current exclusion of $250,000 for capital gain on a personal residence.

How should people prepare for what sounds like an unsettling proposal but may end up at a completely different place?

For some, the right move is transferring properties now, if it makes sense with their overall estate plan. Regardless of what Congress does with this proposal, the estate tax exemption will sunset to just north of $5 million (due to inflation adjustments) from the current $11.7 million. However, the likelihood of the proposal passing in its present state is low. The best option may be to make any revisions focused on the change to the estate tax exemption levels.

Reference: Financial Advisor (June 28, 2021) “How Rich Clients Should Prepare For A Biden Estate Tax Regime”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys