How Do I Plan with a Special Needs Child? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The three main structures a family should put in place to provide future protection for their child relate to money management, self-care and housing, says CNBC’s recent article entitled “If you have a child with special needs, here’s how to plan for their life after you pass.”

Money Management: If the child gets government benefits, such as Supplemental Security Income or Medicaid, parents will usually establish a special needs trust to shield assets to allow the child continued access to those benefits. A trustee oversees the funds and other trust provisions not under the child’s control.

Life Insurance. This is the cheapest way to fund a trust. That is because you need to know what is left over from your estate to care for the child, and this creates that certain bucket of money.

Self-Care: Parents must arrange the services their child will need to live independently or semi-independently, which may be overseen by a court-appointed conservator (or guardian). This person makes all decisions regarding an individual’s financial and/or personal affairs. In the alterative, decisions may be made by a person with power of attorney, as well as the individual.

Parents may want to write a “letter of intent,” which is a guide for those who will care for the child in the future. This letter can cover family history, medical care, benefits, daily routines, diet, behavior management, residential arrangements, education, social life, career, religion and end-of-life decisions, according to the Autism Society.

Housing: With respect to future housing for the child, location is more important than the house itself. Parents should consider options beyond keeping their loved one in the family home. It is more important to look at the individual and the interests and supports they might require. Parents may think of retiring to a community that supports the interests of the child. There is a trend toward more community-based living. State-administered Medicaid HCBS waiver programs allow people with disabilities to live in a house or apartment. The state, in turn, provides staffing for a group of similar residents. Sometimes, a group of families will purchase a collection of houses or condominiums. Also, people are rehabbing houses for roommate living, resulting in neighborhoods of people with special needs.

It is critical to work with specialists in this type of planning, such as an experienced estate planning or elder law attorney.

Reference: CNBC (Dec. 6, 2021) “If you have a child with special needs, here’s how to plan for their life after you pass”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Any Ideas How to Pay for Long-Term Care? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

SGE’s recent article entitled “How to Pay for Long-Term Care” explains that although long-term care insurance can be a good way to pay for long-term care costs, not everyone can buy a policy. Insurance companies will not sell coverage to people already in long-term care or having trouble with activities of daily living. They may also refuse coverage, if you have had a stroke or been diagnosed with dementia, cancer, AIDS or Parkinson’s Disease. Even healthy people over 85 may not be able to get long-term care coverage.

The potential costs of long-term care be challenging for even a relatively prosperous patient if they are forced to stay for some time in a nursing home. However, there are a number of options for covering these expenses, including the following:

  • Federal and state governments. While the federal government’s health insurance plan does not cover most long-term care costs, it would pay for up to 100 days in a nursing home if patients required skilled services and rehabilitative care. Skilled home health or other skilled in-home service may also be covered by Medicare. State programs will also pay for long-term care services for people whose incomes are below a certain level and meet other requirements.
  • Private health insurance. Employer-sponsored health plans and other private health insurance will cover some long-term care costs, such as shorter-term, medically necessary skilled care.
  • Long-term care insurance. Private long-term care insurance policies can cover many of the costs of long-term care.
  • Private savings. Older adults who require long-term care that is not covered by government programs and who do not have long-term care insurance can use money from their retirement accounts, personal savings, brokerage accounts and other sources.
  • Health savings accounts. Money in these tax-advantaged savings can be withdrawn tax-free to pay for qualifying medical expenses, such as long-term care. However, only those in high-deductible health plans can put money into health savings accounts.
  • Home equity loans. Many older adults have paid off their mortgages or have a lot of equity in their homes. A home equity loan is a way to tap this value to pay for long-term care.
  • Reverse mortgage. This allows a homeowner to get what amounts to a home equity loan without paying interest or principal on the loans while they are alive. When the homeowner dies or moves out, the entire balance of the loan becomes due. The lender usually takes ownership.
  • Life insurance. Asset-based long-term care insurance is a whole life insurance policy that permits the policyholder to use the death benefits to pay for long-term care. Life insurance policies can also be purchased with a long-term care rider as a secondary benefit.
  • Hybrid insurance policies. Some long-term care insurance policies are designed annuities. With a single premium payment, the insurer provides benefits that can be used for long-term care. You can also buy a deferred long-term care annuity that is specially designed to cover these costs. Some permanent life insurance policies also have long-term care riders.

While long-term care can be costly, most people will not face extremely burdensome long-term care costs because nursing home stays tend to be short, since statistics show that most people died within six months of entering a nursing home. Moreover, the vast majority of elder adults are not in nursing homes, and many never go into them.

Reference: SGE (Dec. 4, 2021) “How to Pay for Long-Term Care”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What’s the Best Way to Mess Up Estate Plan? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Forbes’ recent article entitled “5 Ways People Mess Up Their Estate Plan” describes the most common mistakes people make that wreak havoc with their estate plans.

Giving money to an individual during life, but not changing their will. Cash gifts in a will are common. However, the will often is not changed. When the will gets probated, the individual named still gets the gift (or an additional gift). No one—including the probate court knows the gift was satisfied during life. As a result, a person may get double.

Not enough assets to fund their trust. If you created a trust years ago, and your overall assets have decreased in value, you should be certain there are sufficient assets going into your trust to pay all the gifts. Some people create elaborate estate plans to give cash gifts to friends and family and create trusts for others. However, if you do not have enough money in your trust to pay for all of these gifts, some people will get short changed, or get nothing at all.

Assuming all assets pass under the will. Some people think they have enough money to satisfy all the gifts in their will because they total up all their assets and arrive at a large enough amount. However, not all the assets will come into the will. Probate assets pass from the deceased person’s name to their estate and get distributed according to the will. However, non-probate assets pass outside the will to someone else, often by beneficiary designation or joint ownership. Understand the difference so you know how much money will actually be in the estate to be distributed in accordance with the will.  Do not forget to deduct debts, expenses and taxes.

Adding a joint owner. If you want someone to have an asset when you die, like real estate, you can add them as a joint owner. However, if your will is dependent on that asset coming into your estate to pay other people (or to pay debts, expenses or taxes), there could be an issue after you die. Adding joint owners often leads to will contests and prolonged court battles. Talk to an experienced estate planning attorney.

Changing beneficiary designations. Changing your beneficiary on a life insurance policy could present another issue. The policy may have been payable to your trust to pay bequests, shelter monies from estate taxes, or pay estate taxes. If it is paid to someone else, your planning could be down the drain. Likewise, if you have a retirement account that was supposed to be payable to an individual and you change the beneficiary to your trust, there could be adverse income tax consequences.

Talk to your estate planning attorney and review your estate plan, your assets and your beneficiary designations. Do not make these common mistakes!

Reference: Forbes (Oct. 26, 2021) “5 Ways People Mess Up Their Estate Plan”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Do Grandchildren Get Some of the Estate If Their Dad Dies before Me? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

It is not that uncommon that a child dies before a parent. The question then arises about who gets that share. Is it the children of the decedent child (the will maker’s grandchildren), or do the will maker’s other children split the share of the decedent child?

Nj.com’s recent article entitled “Who gets this inheritance if a beneficiary dies?” explains that the language of the will itself governs what happens with each beneficiary’s share in the event one of the adult children dies before his or her parents.

Some wills divide the remainder among the will maker’s children who are still living. With this, the surviving siblings would receive the entire estate.

This is called “per capita,” which is a Latin phrase that translates literally to “by head.” In a per capita distribution, each designated beneficiary receives an inheritance only if they’re living when the inheritance vests (at the will maker’s death).

If a beneficiary dies before this, that beneficiary’s share is divided among the surviving named beneficiaries. As a result, the children of the decedent beneficiary get nothing, unless they are specifically designated as beneficiaries.

However, the more common approach is for a will to state: “I give, devise and bequeath my residuary estate to my descendants, per stirpes.”

Per stirpes is a Latin phrase that translates literally to “by roots” or “by branch.” A per stirpes distribution means that a beneficiary’s share passes to their lineal descendants if the beneficiary dies before the inheritance vests. Per stirpes effectively designates a class of beneficiaries to receive estate property, rather than designating only specific individuals to inherit property.

Therefore, providing this language in the will means that if a child predeceases the testator and the predeceased child has surviving descendants, that predeceased child’s share will go to that predeceased child’s descendants … that would be the will maker’s grandchildren.

Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about how each of these designations would work in your specific situation, when you draft or update your will.

Reference: nj.com (Oct. 28, 2021) “Who gets this inheritance if a beneficiary dies?”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Do I Need a Living Trust? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Yahoo Finance’s recent article entitled “What Is a Living Trust in Real Estate?” says that a living trust is a legal document that makes it easier for you to pass assets to your loved ones after you die. It allows property to be transferred directly to your designated beneficiaries without needing to go through probate. A living trust will be managed by a trustee, while you are still living (that can be you).  You will name a successor trustee who will manage the trust, if you become incapacitated and distribute its assets after you pass away.

While the trust holds these assets, you are still considered in possession of them while you are alive (assuming you named yourself the trustee). Therefore, you can move assets in and out of the trust as you see fit. If you have a revocable trust, you can even cancel or change it at any time.

Creating a living trust can simplify the inheritance process for your family when you die. That is because any property you own is subject to the probate process when you die. Probate can be a very lengthy process.

While waiting, your family may be unable to manage, use, or sell the property you left behind. Until probate is complete, your executor will be responsible for maintaining the property, including paying taxes, making repairs and paying the bills (like insurance).

A living trust is a beneficial financial product for many reasons. First, it bypasses the probate courts. There are some types of assets that will pass on to your beneficiaries directly, and others will need to clear the probate courts before they can be disbursed to your beneficiaries. This probate process can take months or even years and can be both costly and complicated.

Another benefit of a trust is that you keep control of your estate, even after you pass away. A living trust lets you set rules, timelines and stipulations for your estate. This may be something like keeping your children from getting a substantial sum of money in their early 20s. With a living trust, you can state instructions for your trustee as to when your kids receive that inheritance. For example, you may provide that they receive their inheritance in stages, like a third at 30, 35 and 40.

Finally, a trust is private. Unlike a will, your trust can be kept as private as you want. Once you pass away, and your will is filed with the probate court, it becomes public record. However, if you would rather have your estate and your wishes kept out of the public eye, a trust can help you do so.  Because a trust skips the probate process, it is also much harder for someone to challenge your directives.

Reference: Yahoo Finance (Oct. 7, 2021) “What Is a Living Trust in Real Estate?”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

How Long Is Probate? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Yahoo Finance’s article entitled “How Long Does Probate Take?” gives us an overview of the main things you need to understand about the probate process, so you can prepare.

During probate, a judge determines the way in which to distribute assets to heirs. The court will also authenticate the will (if there is one) and appoint an executor of the estate to supervise the probate process. Probate procedures depend to a large part on the state the decedent lived in and the type of estate he or she had.

After authenticating the decedent’s will and appointing an executor, the executor locates and assesses all the property owned by the deceased. If there are any debts, the executor uses estate assets to pay these. The remaining estate is then distributed to the heirs.

The probate process takes time to make certain that everything is done according to the law. As a result, it can take from a few months up to over a year. There is a long list of variables that can contribute to the duration. A few of the common factors are discussed below.

Estate Size. An estate’s size contributes significantly to the time in probate. Most states use the total value of the estate to determine its size. This depends on state laws and the type of assets included in the estate. Many states now have a small estate probate process, and some waive it altogether for low-value properties. The state may have a small estate limit of a certain dollar amount. The executor or beneficiaries can complete a Small Estate Claim Form or an Affidavit for Transfer of Personal Property to avoid probate for estates below that value.

Multiple beneficiaries. If an estate has a number of heirs, it may gum up the works. Multiple beneficiaries can slow down the probate proceedings because disputes can drag out an otherwise smooth legal process. Disagreements among family members or other heirs can result in delays or even a total halt.

No Will. If a person dies without a will, it means that there is no guidance from the decedent. As a result, the court and executor have to work through the estate and distribution from scratch.

Debts. Taxes and debts are major factors in the time needed to close an estate. Creditors must be paid before the beneficiaries can receive anything. When a person dies, his or her creditors must receive formal notice. They have a deadline to make a claim for money the estate owed. The longer the claims period, the longer the delay in the probate process.

Taxes. Taxes on an estate also can take a while to process. The estate must receive a closing letter from the IRS and the state taxing authority to close out the probate process. This can take up to six months.

Reference: Yahoo Finance (Sep. 27, 2021) “How Long Does Probate Take?”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Do College Kids Need Estate Planning? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

The topic of estate planning is frequently overlooked in the craze to get kids to college.

When your child leaves home, it is important to understand that legally you may not hold the same rights in your relationship that you did for the first 18 years of your child’s life.

Wealth Advisor’s article entitled “Estate Planning Documents Every College Student Should Have in Place” says that it is crucial to have these discussions as soon as possible with your college student about the plans they should put into place before going out on their own or heading to college. An experienced estate planning attorney can give counsel on the issues concerning your child’s physical health and financial well-being.

When your child turns 18, you are no longer your child’s legal guardian. Therefore, issues pertaining to his or her health cannot be disclosed to you without your child’s consent. For instance, if your child is in an accident and becomes temporarily incapacitated, you could not make any medical decisions or even give consent. As a result, you would likely be denied access to his or her medical information. Ask your child to complete a HIPAA release. This is a medical form that names the people allowed to get information about an individual’s medical status, when care is needed. If you are not named on their HIPAA release, it is a major challenge to obtain any medical updates about your adult child, including information like whether they have been admitted to a hospital.

In addition, your child also needs to determine the individual who will manage their healthcare decisions, if they are unable to do so on their own. This is done by designating a healthcare proxy or agent. Without this document, the decision about who makes choices regarding your child’s medical matters may be uncertain.

Your child should ensure his or her financial matters are addressed if he or she cannot see to them, either due to mental incapacity or physical limitations, such as studying abroad. Ask that you or another trusted relative or friend be named agent under your child’s financial power of attorney, so that you can help with managing things like financial aid, banking and tax matters.

Reference: Wealth Advisor (Sep. 24, 2021) “Estate Planning Documents Every College Student Should Have in Place”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

What Is the First Thing an Executor of a Will Should do? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Serving as an executor can be like having a second job. The size of the estate and your relationship to the deceased can make it a bit overwhelming, especially for adult children handling the estate of their last surviving parent. Those executors typically distribute not only financial assets, but decades of personal property, says the article “What to Do When You’re the Executor” from Yahoo! Finance. If the family is prone to arguments, or the estate is large, or both, the job of the executor can be even more challenging.

The first thing to do is obtain the death certificate. Depending on your state, the funeral home or state’s records department in the location where the death occurred will have them. Get five to ten originals, with the raised seal. You will need them to gain control of assets.

Next, file the will and the death certificate with the county probate court. The deadline for filing the will varies by state. However, it can range from ten to ninety days to six months to one year after the date of death. If probate is necessary, you will also need to obtain a “Letter of Testamentary.” This court-created document says you are the legally authorized person to manage the estate. Until you have this letter, you cannot move forward with any of the assets.

Build your team of professional advisors. An experienced estate planning attorney will help navigate probate court. You may also need a CPA and a financial planner. If possible, contact the estate planning attorney who drew up the will, because they are probably familiar with the will, the estate and possibly with the deceased.

Inventory assets. After death is when we learn a lot about those we loved. Were they hyper-organized, keeping records in an easily understood system? Did they file insurance policies under the name of the insurance company, or leave papers in a stack in no order whatsoever? Go through every box and file cabinet to make sure you do not miss anything.

Protect personal property. If the estate included a home, you must make sure that mortgage and tax payments are made. If you do not know who had keys to the house, investing in the services of a locksmith and a new set of locks and keys could save you from unscrupulous family members who believe certain items belong to them. If a car is sitting in the garage, it will need to be cared for and the title of ownership will need to be dealt with.

Obtain a federal EIN number from the IRS and use it to open an estate bank account. Until the estate is settled, the executor needs to pay bills and make deposits. A separate bank account prevents co-mingling funds, makes it easier to track transactions and is useful, if there are any challenges to your decisions as executor.

Pay any outstanding debts. The executor may be personally liable if debts from the estate are not paid before the estate assets are distributed. You are also responsible for filing state and federal tax returns for the last year the person was alive, as well as a federal tax return for the estate.

To head off potential animosity, stay in touch with beneficiaries. Let them know what you are doing, especially if the process is taking a while. Keep excellent records to reflect your activities.

Distributing assets may require court approval, depending on where the decedent lived. If the will contains specific directions for personal items, you will be in better shape than if there are no directions. If not, review the inventory of assets to see how things can be equitably distributed. Do not underestimate the emotional response to this part of the process. Families have battled over items of little monetary value.

It is a good idea to get a release from beneficiaries acknowledging they have received their inheritance. An estate planning attorney can help with preparing the language to help minimize any challenges in the future.

Reference: Yahoo! Finance (Oct. 29, 2021) “What to Do When You’re the Executor”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Who Pays Mortgage When I Pass Away? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

No one automatically assumes your mortgage after your death, says Credible’s recent article entitled “What Happens to Your Mortgage When You Die?”

Your estate executor—the individual you name to carry out your will and manage your estate after you die—will continue to make payments using funds from the estate, while everything is being settled. Later, the person who inherits the home might be able to assume the loan.

If you are a co-borrower or co-signer with the decedent, you do not have to do anything to take over the mortgage because you are already responsible for paying it.

Mortgage loans have a due-on-sale clause, also called an acceleration clause. This requires the loan to be paid in full, if it transfers to a new owner. However, federal law prohibits lenders from accelerating a loan in the event of a borrower’s death.

Those who acquire ownership this way are considered “successors in interest,” and lenders must treat them as if they were the borrower. A successor in interest can assume the loan without having to apply or qualify, and continue making the payments. You also can modify the mortgage to avoid foreclosure, if you want to keep the home.

A significant step in estate planning is drafting a will stating exactly how you want your estate handled after you die and naming an executor.

When planning to bequeath a mortgaged home, you should disclose the mortgage to your executor and close relatives. If you fail to do so, they will not know how to make payments. As a result, the home could be inadvertently lost to foreclosure.

Finally, think about whether the person who inherits your home will be able to afford mortgage payments and upkeep.

An experienced estate planning attorney can help you devise a strategy to keep your gift from becoming a burden to your loved ones.

Reference: Credible (Sep. 24, 2021) “What Happens to Your Mortgage When You Die?”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys

Will Gift to Heir Be a Benefit or Burden? – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning

Research shows that getting a lot of money can have harmful consequences. According to MarketWatch, a study found that a third of people who received an inheritance had negative savings within two years of the event.

Watertown Public Opinion’s recent article “How to make sure you leave inheritances that are helpful, not harmful” says that, on average, an inheritance is gone in about five years because of careless debts and bad investment behaviors.

However, a minority of heirs do not mishandle their inheritances. Nonetheless, it is good to explore exactly what you intend the gift to accomplish, prior to leaving money or property to someone. It is also important to consider the possible negative consequences of a gift.

Determine if the gift will actually cost the recipient time or money. As an example, leaving the family home, vacation property, land, or a ranch to someone can often cost them money they may not have in maintenance or taxes.

You should also consider if it results in causing difficult emotional issues between siblings, and whether it might encourage bad financial behavior. If a beneficiary has not developed healthy financial behaviors, a significant inheritance might actually create new financial troubles instead of addressing existing ones.

A good way to make certain that your bequests are helpful is to explore your own intentions. Ask yourself if you want to leave enough money for the beneficiary to become financially independent and if you would you like your bequest used in a specific way, like to pay off debt or fund education.

Do you care how they spend the money?

Another way to provide for thoughtful, conscious inheritances, is to speak with the intended recipients.

Ask them directly whether someone would want a bequest, such as a valuable art or coin collection or perhaps an expensive vacation home. Discuss the options and possibilities and do not simply take for granted what your heirs might want or what they might do with an inheritance.

Leaving a family member an inheritance can be helpful in some instances, but may be exceedingly destructive in others. No two situations are alike, and if you want to increase the chances that your bequests will be helpful, explore and improve your own relationship with money. Examining that relationship can help make sure that what you leave to heirs will be a benefit not a burden.

Reference: Watertown Public Opinion (Nov. 1, 2021) “How to make sure you leave inheritances that are helpful, not harmful”

 

Sims & Campbell, LLC – Annapolis and Towson Estate Planning Attorneys